The Stat Sheet

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Each realm has a set of national characteristics that describe the state of that nation. What follows is a description of each of the national statistics. Due to a nation's numerous characteristics, a player can determine the makeup of a nation, focusing on the development of some statistics while all but ignoring others.

Please note that even GMs are not completely perfect. If there are differences between what you think the stats should be and what you see on your status report, do contact the GM either on your next turn’s orders, or by phone to determine who is more correct. Chances are there will be some kind of mistake on your status report every turn so get used to it.

National Stats

This section of the status report shows all the relevant statistics for your nation. Each of the entries are discussed below.

Nation Name

This is the official name of your Nation. This can be changed with some effort. Sometimes the official name is not in English but in the native tongue of the land.

Player Data

At the top of each status report there should be indicated the name of the player, the name of their nation, the player’s contact information (address, phone and email numbers), and the current credit account (in dollars) available to that player.

The player owes the GM money if the number of credits is a negative number shown in parenthesis like so: ($5.00), and should pay up with their next set of orders or they will be in danger of losing their country to someone who can pay the bills.

Nation Type

Nations can be of several general types in the Middle Ages period. The most common kind of nation is the OpenNation, which is an empire like those you read about in the history books. There are also Primacies (ruled by a Primate Religious Authority like the Roman Catholic Pope) and Secret Nations (like many religious cults or the Assassins of Alamut).

After a campaign has advanced to the Renaissance Period, a new nation type, the Merchant House, is introduced.

Society Information

The following stats describe the nation’s societal makeup.

Culture Type

This label indicates the general make-up of your society.

This qualifier has a profound effect on your nation; governing the kinds of units you can build, the revenues you gain from taxation and trade, and the extent of your realm. In the Middle-Ages there are five kinds of societies: Civilized, Barbarian, Nomadic, Seafaring and pre-Columbian. As the campaign progresses, more Culture types will be added.


Pre-Columbian societies are those that, by the vagaries of fate and history, are denied certain tools of civilization: the horse, the wheel, metalworking. They can roughly be described as Stone-Age societies. These include all of the pre-Columbian American societies and those civilizations south of the jungle belt in Africa. Also, Australia and parts of Indonesia qualify.

Pre-Columbian tech levels range from 1 to 3.


Barbarian societies are those proto-states that are usually no more than a confederation of tribal groups under a war-Leader of some kind. They usually have much less developed agricultural systems, trade only in barter if at all, and use a hodgepodge of currencies (usually borrowed from Civilized cultures). Examples of this kind of society are the Vikings, the early Franks and other Germanic tribes, and many sub-Saharan African societies.

Barbarian tech levels range from 2 to 4.


Nomadic societies are also tribal groups, but where the Barbarian culture is relatively static from a geographic standpoint the nomad culture is in constant movement — herding the beasts that provide its economic base. The nomad does not have towns or cities and does not farm or tie himself to the land. Nomadic societies are led by councils or war-Leaders and guided by oral traditions. Examples are the Turks, the Mongols, the pre-Islam Arabs, and the Great Plains Indians of North America after the introduction of the horse.

Nomadic tech levels range from 2 to 4.


Seafaring societies are those formed around the pursuit of sea-borne commerce and travel. They have a well-developed economy and are very similar to Civilized societies, save that they generally encompass a smaller land area and are more affluent. Examples of Seafarer cultures are Venice, Srivijaya on Java, and the Polynesians.

Seafaring tech Levels range from 1 to 7.


Civilized societies are agriculturally based, with an emphasis on city and town life and a well-developed trading economy, which has a monetary currency and a central ruling authority. Examples of Civilized societies are: the Byzantine Empire, Classical China, or Medieval France.

Civilized tech levels range from 3 to 7.

Societal Base

The Societal Base describes the fundamental formation of the society and the lines upon which the members of the society relate to each other and to the government that rules them. There are five types of Societal Base: Fanatical, Caste Clan, Feudal, and Open.


In a Fanatical structure, there is some all-pervading sense of control. It may be religious or some other form of fanaticism. Here everyone is watching out for transgressions of others within the society. All outsiders are shunned and even turned away out of suspicion. This structure is the strongest and the weakest. It will pull together under times of great outside pressure, but will usually blow itself to pieces if left alone long enough. Examples of Fanatical societies are the Assassins of Alamut and other secret societies.


A Caste societal base is one in which a person is born into a specific social stratum and that social stratum describes their place in the society. It will regulate which jobs they can take and it will define all of their relations with other members of society. A Caste structure is usually very stable over a long term and regulates the society well. Caste structures tend to limit the degree of societal deviation that occurs over time. Examples of this are: Classical (Han) China, the Hindic Indian civilizations, and Tokugawa Japan.


A Clan societal base indicates that the relationship of an individual member of the society is based on the relationship of their extended family (or clan) to the other clans that make up the society. The individual will owe allegiance to the Clan and the Clan in turn may owe allegiance to a larger structure, but the individual does not. A sense of family honor or loyalty is far greater than a sense of national honor. Examples of this are: early Medieval Japan, some pre-Columbian societies, all nomadic and many Barbarian societies.


A Feudal Societal base is typified by a set of relationships between each layer of the society. In general the lower levels of the society provide the higher levels with duty at arms, tribute of grain and worked goods, and manpower for various public projects. The higher levels, in turn, provide military protection, skilled services and religious guidance. Examples of this are many Meso-American states, the manorial nobility of early Medieval Europe and numerous African societies.


An Open Societal base indicates that the relationships within the society are the result of personal effort. A man born the son of a baker may become the war chief of an entire kingdom, or he may become a banker, or a cooper (a maker of barrels). Such societies are marked by internal social volatility. They are innovative and progressive, usually with a heavy mercantile bent. Yet they are also given to heresies, revolts, insurrections and other social traumas. Examples of Open societies are: pre-Tokugawa (Warring States) Japan and Renaissance Italy.

Economic Base

The Economic Base describes the fundamental means of economic production (in terms of application of manpower) that your nation utilizes. This is mainly of interest to the GM, though you may find that maintaining certain types of Economic Bases can be harmful in the long run.

The four Economic Bases are: Slave, Guild, Agrarian and Free.


A Slave economic base is one in which the fundamental processes of the economy are provided by slave labor. These functions include agriculture, basic industrial production, construction, and menial labor in cities and family units. Nations of this economic type can purchase slave National Force Points (sNFP) from other nations. Examples of Slave economic bases are: the Roman Empire, the Pharoanic and Ptolemaic Egyptians, many medieval African societies, classical Greece, and so on.

A slave nation can use sNFP to build cities, fortresses, national projects, public works, and for investments. They cannot be used to build troops of any kind.

Nations that do not have a Slave economic base cannot utilize sNFP within their own economies without risk. They may purchase or acquire slaves and re-sell them to a third party (who presumably can use them) without a change to their own economic type, but if they do use the slaves within their own economy, then conversion to a Slave economic base will likely follow.


An Agrarian economic base is basically an agriculturally dominated economy. The means of basic production (agriculture) are handled by people who exchange the fruits of their labors for military or social protection from a higher or different social stratum. The higher social stratum retains ownership of the resources and lands used for production and allow the workers to utilize them for the common support. Examples of this are: early Medieval France and Germany, Japan in the 1300-1500’s, and various mercantile industries in the West in the late 1800’s.


A Guild economic base is governed by a set of monopolies. In this case a certain social set of families or clans is granted (or acquires) the right to perform a specific service within the economy (like producing shoes) and they are the only members of the society allowed to produce that product, service or commodity. Movement between the various Guilds by individuals is usually proscribed or regulated. The Guilds provide a degree of social protection for their members, however, and usually have a political voice. Examples of this are: 16th century Holland and Italy, and England throughout the latter Middle Ages.


A Free economic base is, essentially, not governed by any strictures except that someone is providing all required services, goods and commodities. Movement by an individual between jobs or professions is not regulated and a shoemaker may become a cooper if the will takes him. The workers do not, usually, have a political voice in such a system as they are disorganized or splintered into differing factions.

Government Type

This is the basic type of government that administers your country. The basic types of governments are as follows: Tribal, Feudal Monarchy, Centralized Monarchy, Imperial, Constitutional Monarchy, Oligarchy, Democracy, Federalized Democracy, Anarchy and Dictatorship

Due to the various capabilities of each kind of government, there are limits on its capacities - expressed by the maximum land area it can effectively administer, by its capability to project military power, its inherent stability, and its capacity to administer to the needs of its people. These capabilities are summarized below and are referred to in relation to the maximum Bureaucratic Level and Infrastructure that the government can maintain.

Since the Tech Level of your nation limits the Bureaucratic Level, the effects of government on that limit are expressed as a modifier to your Tech Level. The limits to Infrastructure are more stringent and are limited by either the type of Government itself, or by the Tech Level of the nation. Where limits involve multiples, round up.

You are not stuck with the same kind of government forever. It can be changed.


Max Bureaucratic Level Max Infrastructure
0 0

A Tribal government is one where there is usually a single strong Leader that guides the tribe, but there is always some form of elder council that remembers the traditions that the Leader must uphold. Tribal governments are the most personal of all governments and will fall apart when the Leader requires a support staff to rule more land. In game terms, the Administration rating and personal Charisma of the King is the only thing holding the nation together.

Tribal states may have King, Heir, Feudal Allied and Allied Leaders.

Feudal Monarchy

Max Bureaucratic Level Max Infrastructure
1 1

A Feudal government is usually run by a king or prince and is governed through the mechanics of feudalism, in which each level of society owes allegiance or an obligation to the next higher level and that level, in turn, owes fealty or obedience to a still higher level, and so on, up to the king or prince. A peasant, however, does not owe the King direct loyalty unless he is a peasant on the King’s land.

This decentralization means that the cost of maintaining a Feudal government is very low, since the King does not have to pay its administrators - in money. Instead, they receive the grant of land and the inhabitants thereof. In return, the feudal lords provide the King with troops for a specified time and agree to uphold their law. With this kind of government the King becomes really only the "first among equals" vis a vis the nobility.

The cost to maintain any native armies is the same as it is for other nations. Of course the amount of revenue that a Feudal government makes is also small, so Royal armies will be small. The fighting strength of a feudal state comes from the armies maintained by Allied and Feudal Allied provinces. Pacified and Friendly regions are considered part of the personal demesne of the King.

The Feudal nation may have King, Heir, Prince, Lieutenant, Bishop, Feudal Allied and Allied Leaders.

Centralized Monarchy

Max Bureaucratic Level Max Infrastructure
3 3

A Centralized Monarchy is a government centered around a monarch, their advisors and bureaucrats. There is still a working nobility, but they govern in the name of the King, and the central authority has considerably more power residing in its office than a Feudal monarch. The people owe loyalty to the King directly in most cases. This is a relatively efficient means of government, though it tends to be dependent upon the strength of the individual monarch. A government such as this has a higher BL ceiling than does a Feudal monarchy.

If the government ratings of a Centralized Monarchy exceed the limit set above, and no other steps are taken, the Nation's government type automatically converts to Imperial.

The Monarchy may have King, Heir, Prince, Lieutenant, Bishop, Feudal Allied and Allied Leaders.


Max Bureaucratic Level Max Infrastructure
Tech Level - 1 Tech Level × 2

The Imperial style of government is based around a large and (hopefully) efficient corps of professional administrators. Holding the highest position of authority in an Imperial system is, of course, the Emperor. This kind of government is well suited for the holding of large areas of land and has a high Bureaucratic Level and Infrastructure ceiling. It is prone to coups, however, if a tradition of peaceful dynastic succession has not grown up around the office of the Emperor.

The Empire may have King, Heir, Prince, Lieutenant, Bishop, Feudal Allied and Allied Leaders.

Constitutional Monarchy

Max Bureaucratic Level Max Infrastructure
Tech Level - 1 Tech Level × 1.5

A Constitutional Monarchy is a strongly centralized monarchy that has enhanced its governing power by establishing an elected body to determine the will of the people, and to act in concert with the King to formulate foreign and internal policy. Such a government is well suited to effective government and has a high BL ceiling. This kind of government is likely to transform into or beget a Federalized Democracy -- if there is no disaster to cause a regression into some other, more oppressive, form of government.

It is unlikely for such a government to form until the Renaissance period or later.

The Constitutional Monarchy may have King, Heir, Lieutenant, Bishop, Feudal Allied and Allied Leaders.


Max Bureaucratic Level Max Infrastructure
Tech Level Tech Level

A small body of men who make decisions governs an Oligarchy by consensus. They are chosen by the degree of wealth or connections that they maintain, though power can be gained through the support of the common people. A small degree of heredity sometimes accrues to an oligarchic government. In classical times this form of government is often called a ‘republic’.

Since the men who comprise the governing body already hold most (if not all) of the political power of the state, it is a fairly efficient form of government. It depends on the ruling clique to remain in harmony, however, and dissension may lead to civil war or insurrection. Also, this form of government is often not swift to respond to the needs of the people. An Oligarchy has a moderate BL and Infrastructure ceiling.

The Oligarchy may have King, Prince, Lieutenant, Bishop, Feudal Allied and Allied Leaders.


Max Bureaucratic Level Max Infrastructure
Tech Level × ½ Tech Level × ½

An electorate of the common people rules a Democracy. Decisions are made by general consensus. This is a very open form of government, with great latitude for freedom of expression, or abuse.

Democracies cannot control vast territories or a far-flung empire, as the communication problems are insurmountable. Democracies are vulnerable to both external and internal manipulation and eventually will transform to a more authoritarian form of government.

A Democracy may employ King, Lieutenant, Bishop, Feudal Allied and Allied Leaders.

Federalized Democracy

Max Bureaucratic Level Max Infrastructure
Tech Level Tech Level × 2

A Federalized Democracy, on the other hand, retains most of the good aspects of the Democracy and adds a governmental framework to them to provide for a more efficient government. An elected ruler and legislature form the backbone, and a class of professional administrators serves the system. If a tradition of peaceful transition of power has been established this is the most stable and responsive form of government, and has the highest BL and Infrastructure ceiling.

A Democracy may employ King, Lieutenant, Bishop, Feudal Allied and Allied Leaders.


Max Bureaucratic Level Max Infrastructure
0 0

This state exists when there is no recognizable form of government in control, or when that government is so segmented that no single group can gain control. Anarchies do not last all that long and a form of government will somehow emerge from the chaos.

An Anarchy may employ a King, who will hopefully bring order out of chaos.


Max Bureaucratic Level Max Infrastructure
Tech Level Tech Level × 2

A Dictatorship is, fundamentally, the rule of one man. He may derive his power from the people, the military or personal charisma. He stands outside of the normal structure of the society and its rules. As a result he can govern very effectively if he is a competent Leader. In effect the true BL or Infrastructure of a nation ruled by a Dictator is a reflection of his own capabilities. Under a great Leader a Dictatorship can control vast territories and armies. Under a weak Leader it will disintegrate with alarming speed.

A Dictatorship may employ King, Lieutenant, Bishop, Feudal Allied and Allied Leaders.

Save in the case of Religious Primacies, the development of a Dictatorship is unlikely until the Industrial Period.


Max Bureaucratic Level Max Infrastructure
Tech Level - 1 Tech Level × 1.5

A Theocracy is the rule of a Primate Religious Authority or a Religious Order. A Theocracy may employ a King and Lieutenants. Rarely they may have Feudal Allied and Allied Leaders as well. Princes are only available if sent by another nation.

Geographic Zone

This label describes the Geographic Zone your Empire is situated in. The Geographic Zone has some effect on the nation’s Imperial Size and population figures. Harvest results are also calculated on a Geographic Zone basis. There are 24 Geographic Zones in Lords of the Earth:

Table 2-1. Geographic Zones

Geographic Zone Code
Amazonia AMZ
Australia AU
Central Asia CA
China CH
Central America CNA
East Africa EA
Eastern Europe EE
Eastern North America ENA
Eastern South America ESA
Indonesia IA
India IN
Japan JP
Middle East ME
Manchuria MN
North Africa NA
Pacifica PA
Persia PR
South Africa SA
South East Asia SEA
Siberia SI
Southern South America SSA
West Africa WA
Western Europe WE
Western North America WNA
Western South America WSA

Level Of Technology

This statistic is a measure of the advancement your nation has made over time. At the start of the Medieval Game, generally speaking, pre-Columbian civilizations are at the lowest level of technology, Nomads and Barbarians are above that, and Seafaring and Civilized Nations start at the highest technology. As the game progresses, the level of technology will increase, and a nation will be able to exploit new opportunities. The advance of technology is one vehicle to change Culture Types and improve military capabilities.

Please note that the description of a Tech Level may contain mention of a specific technology. This indicates only that during that particular tech level that technology will be developed by some nation at that level, somewhere in the world. It does not mean that your nation will gain that technology upon reaching that tech level.

The Tech Level affects the following national statistics or ratings:

  • Basis for the maximum Bureaucratic Level, modified by the type of Government you have.
  • Maximum Intel Operations, Intel Bonus, Assassin Operations and Assassin Bonus levels.
  • One-half of the Tech Level is the national Action Range (used for Intel and Religious operations).
  • Determines your maximum military Quality Ratings.
  • Helps define the maximum number of Leaders that your nation can have.

Table 2-2. Technology Levels

Tech Level Title Culture Types
001 Stone Working Pre-Columbian / Seafaring
002 Iron Working Pre-Columbian / Barbarian / Nomadic / Seafaring
003 Iron Working - Steel Civilized / Pre-Columbian / Barbarian / Nomadic / Seafaring
004 Early Medieval Civilized / Barbarian / Nomadic / Seafaring
005 Medieval - Medicine

Civilized / Seafaring

006 Medieval - Crossbow Civilized / Seafaring
007 Late Medieval Civilized / Seafaring
008 Renaissance - Gunpowder The Renaissance

As time passes in the game, your Nation will gain or lose Tech Points with each turn. As your nation accrues more and more Tech Points, your Tech Level will improve. A wide range of factors affects the accrual of Tech Points. Some of them are: University Level, Percentage of national revenue derived from Inter-nation trade, Social, Economic and Government types, the Tech Levels of nations that your nation trades with, Religious type and Religious strength, and number and size of Cities.


This label represents the official language spoken by your nation. It is possible that the subject population speaks a different language or many different languages. Administering or garrisoning a region that has a different language than that of your nation is more difficult. There is a table of all of the languages spoken throughout the world.

Military Strength Index

The Military Strength Index (MSI) is a measure of the relative military and institutional strength of your nation based upon numerous factors and national stats. In essence, this will tell you whether you are a nation to be reckoned with or not. This value is based on a complicated formula that only a computer should calculate.

A table called the ISI (Imperial Strength Index) List usually appears at the end of each NewsFax showing the current rankings of all of the Nations in the game.

Homeland Build Zone Origin

This is the capital region of your nation. It is from this region that the Homeland Build Zone radiates. If you have a Capital city which is not in your Homeland, then you trace the Homeland Build Zone and Command Control Radius from the Capital city itself, which means you pay 1 AP to enter the surrounding non-Homeland region. If the Capital is moved from the Homeland, the Homeland does not move!


The Population figure is usually in the low millions. The population figure will fluctuate as you gain or lose regions, as your agricultural production and urbanization increase, and as you suffer from plagues and war.

In some campaigns, you may also be provided with a Friendly Population figure, which represents the pool of people that you draw your National Force Points from.

Economic Information

These are the values that describe the levels of income in your nation.

Economic Strength Index

The Economic Strength Index (ESI) is a measure of the economic power of your nation - that is, whether it is rich or poor. The formula for the ESI is as follows:

ESI = Regional Income + City Income + Inter-City Income + Public Works Bonus + International Trade Income

The six factors that go into the ESI are all listed on the status report and are each discussed below. Each turn, the ESI ranking is reported at the back of the Newsfax. Unlike the MSI, which shows the actual value, the ESI shows the rank of the nation.

International Trade Value

This is the number which displays how valuable the economic output of your nation is to other nations. This number, when multiplied by the ITV of your trade partners and then multiplied by your National Market Value, is the amount of income your Nation derives from international trade.

The ITV is calculated by totaling the City Trade Values of all of the cities in your nation. Each CTV is calculated according to the following formula:

City Trade Value (CTV) =
(City GPv / 3) ×
City Type Modifier ×
City Status Modifier ×
Regional Terrain Modifier ×
Cultural Modifier
Example: The Caliphate of Delhi has a port city, Bombay, which is worth 8 GPv. It is in an allied province, which is cultivated. The Caliphate is Civilized. The CTV of Bombay, then, would be (8/3) × 1.5 × 1.0 × 1.0 × 0.8 = 3.2.

In addition to the CTV, your ITV is increased by:

  • One (1) for each Trade Center your nation controls and has a tax status great than zero: see Table 2-7. Control Status Tax Multiples.
  • One (1) (once) for possessing one or more Silk Route regions.
  • One (1) (once) for possessing one or more Fur Line regions
  • The modified value of a 1 GPv City for each 20 Merchant Shipping Points on Internal Trade This is roughly 0.4 ITV.
  • Your Nation’s Imperial Size divided by your Imperial Size Multiple.

Table 2-3. City Type Modifiers

City Type Code Modifier
Port p 1.5
Capital c 1.25
Road r 1.0
Silk Road s 1.0
Holy h 0.75
Treasury $ 0.75
University u 0.75
Normal / 0.5
Besieged b 0.0
Isolated i 0.0
Port City on a Road + 1.5
Port, Capital on Road # 1.5
Port on Silk Road * 1.5
Silk Road w/ Road & 1.25

The city letter code is the City Spacer Code.

Table 2-4. City Status Modifiers

City Status Modifier
hm / f / ea / p 1.0
t / a 0.75
pt / nt / fa 0.5
c 0.0

City Control Status is defined and discussed in Control Level.

Table 2-5. Region Terrain Type Modifiers

Region Terrain Modifier
c2 / c / i 1.0
w / s / j 0.75
m / d 0.5
t 0.25

Terrain Types are defined and discussed in Terrain.

Table 2-6. National Culture Modifiers

Cultural Type Modifier
Seafarer 0.9
Civilized 0.8
Barbarian 0.7
Nomadic 0.6
pre-Columbian 0.5

National Market Value

The National Market Value (NMV) is a factor based on the Bureaucracy, the Infrastructure, the Culture, Government and Economic Types, as well as the Imperial Size of the nation. For the most part, its main function is to regulate the revenues received from Inter-National trade. This statistic has great significance for those nations that rely on a good deal of Inter-National trade for revenue. The NMV may also fluctuate from turn to turn, based on GM-determined factors.

Regional Income

This is the base revenue you derive from taxing the regions of your nation — with all the modifications due to terrain and status taken into account. The formula for figuring out the regional income is as follows:

Regional Value =
Region’s GPv × Status Multiple ×
Terrain Multiple
Regional Income (in GP) =
The Sum of Regional Values +
1 (for each Silk Road region controlled) +
2 (for each Fur Line region controlled)

Note that Regional Income will be affected by the MaxTax in effect in the campaign.

Table 2-7. Control Status Tax Multiples

Region Status Tax Multiple
Neutral (n) 0.0
Claimed (c) 0.0
Occupied (oc) 0.0
Non-Paying Tributary (nt) 0.0
Feudal Allied (fa) 0.0
Pacified Tributary (pt) 0.5
Tributary (t) 0.5
Pacified (p) 1.0
Economic Ally (ea) 1.0
Full Allied (a) 1.0
Friendly (f) 1.0
Homeland (hm) 2.0

Table 2-8. Terrain Type Tax Multiples

c2 1.0 1.5 2.0 1.0 1.0
C 1.0 1.0 1.5 1.0 1.0
w 0.5 1.0 0.3 0.5 1.0
m 0.3 0.5 0.2 0.2 0.5
s 0.3 0.2 1.0 0.0 0.2
d 0.2 0.2 0.5 0.0 0.2
t 0.2 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.2
i 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.5 1.0
j 0.3 0.5 0.2 1.0 1.0
o 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

City Income

This is the base revenue you derive from taxing the cities of your nation — with all modifications due to control status taken into account. The formula for calculating city income is as follows:

City Value = City GPv × Status Multiple × Terrain Multiple
Total City Income =
Sum of City values +1 per 20 MSP on Internal Trade

Note that City Income will be affected by the MaxTax in effect in the campaign.

Inter-City Trade Income

This is the revenue derived from taxing the trade between the cities of your nation. Only open nation control statuses of Tributary or better should make a city or trade center count for Inter-City Trade.

Primacy, Secret Empire, Merchant House and Religious Order non-Open control statuses do not make a city qualify. If they have a regular control status in a city, of course, it will count for Inter-City Trade.

The formula for calculating the Inter-City Trade (ICT) income is as follows:

ICT Income Subtotal =
( Sum of all taxable city GPv’s
+ 3 per controlled Trade Center
+ 3 for the control of at least one Silk Route region
+ 3 for the control of at least one region adjacent to the Fur Line
+ (MSP assigned to Internal Trade / 20)
- the value of the smallest City. )

To expand a little on this formula:

  • Each Trade Region controlled at Tributary or better (Trade Centers, control of at least one Silk Route region, and/or one Furline region) is counted as if it were a 3 GPv city.
  • Cities and Trade Regions of Tributary control status and higher are included in calculating the ICT figure.
  • Merchant Shipping Points assigned to Internal Trade adds ( MSP / 20.= GP ) to Inter-City trade. This figure includes fractional amounts of GP.

Royal Road Income

In addition, if you have cities within your Nation that are connected by Royal Roads you receive extra Gold Points for those cities, as determined by the number of cities that are connected to each other.

In the following formula: Royal Road Income (RRI) is the number of Gold Points that you receive from this extra, Road-based, trade. RC is the number of cities that you control which are connected to other cities you control by Royal Roads and ISD is the Size Multiple of your Nation, which is usually three (3).


As a result, the total Inter-City Trade Income is equal to:

Total ICT = ICT Income Subtotal + Royal Road Income
Example: Kanem-Bornu possesses twelve cities, five of which are on roads. Of the twelve cities, the smallest is a 1 GPv city, and the rest total 38 GPv in total. The ICT Subtotal would be ( 39 total GPv - 1 GPv for the smallest city = 38 GPv). If Kanem-Bornu has the standard Size Multiple (3), then their Royal Road Income would be equal to (5-1)² / 3 = 5.3 GP. The total ICT Income would be ( 38.0 + 5.3 = 43.3 ).

Public Works Bonus

This is the total revenue that accrues to the nation from the increased productivity of your people due to Public Works improvements built by the government. The Public Works Bonus is the sum of the Public Works invested in each region and city that the nation controls, each modified by the control status of the region or city. The formula for calculating the Public Works Bonus is as follows:

Region Subtotal =
Sum of
( Regional Public Works × Region Status Modifier )
City Subtotal =
Sum of
( City Public Works × City Status Modifier )
Total Public Works Bonus =
Region Subtotal + City Subtotal

A sufficiently high PWB has the benefit of producing extra National Force Points for the nation by increasing the base population of the Nation. Note that for NFP to be derived from Population, your nation must have an active Census.

Regional Public Works also adds to the Agro production of a region at the rate of 1 Agro Point per 5 PWB in the region. Public Works do require regular maintenance support, the cost of which is included in Project Support.

International Trade

This is the revenue derived from taxing the trade between your nation and other nations. The calculations required to determine the International Trade revenue are rather intricate and are merely generalized below. Like the other income figures, this is calculated for you and reported on your status report so you don’t have to do the math. If you wish to examine the full set of cruel and horrible formulae (for those of you who desire to stick sharp pins into your tongue), they can be found in Calculating Inter-nation Trade.

Inter-Nation trade revolves around three primary figures:

  • Your International Trade Value (ITV)
  • Your trade Partner’s ITV
  • Your National Market Value (NMV)

The general formula for calculating International Trade Income is as follows:

Income = Your ITV × Their ITV × Your NMV

Raw Revenue

This is the sum of Regional, City, Inter-City, Public Works Bonus and International Trade. This amount is then multiplied by your Tax Rate to compute your total available income for this turn.

When multiplied by the Tax Rate this figure becomes the Net Revenue for the turn.

Saved Gold

This is the number of Gold Points left over from last turn. This is added into the Gold available for this turn by noting it in the Saved box on your order form.

The National Force Pool

The National Force Pool represents the available manpower of the nation. Each National Force Point represents approximately 200 men. NFP's are required for the construction of military units, cities, and megalithic projects. They may be used, at the player’s discretion, for other projects or investments as well.

NFP are drawn from Friendly populations in regions and cities, and from high Public Works Bonuses in the same (if you have an active Census). Therefore, if you want more NFP you need to acquire more Friendly regions and cities, or invest in higher Public Works in Friendly regions and cities.


In this section are the stats pertaining to the government of the nation. You will note that each Rating (BL, Infra, et al.) has a number following the notation “Inv:” to the right of the rating. This is the amount of Gold and/or NFP that is currently invested in increasing that rating.

Once GP and/or NFP are invested in a rating, they cannot be removed from that investment.

Each NFP invested in a government rating counts as two (2) GP invested.


The Bureaucracy Level (BL) represents how effective your government is. The higher the Bureaucratic Level, the more efficiently your government can maintain communication with your Leaders and regions.

  • Each point of Bureaucracy Level increases the number of Action Points away regions can be controlled from your capital or Homeland. Regions and Leaders beyond the King’s Command Control Radius (which is equal to the national BL) in action points are subject to revolt checks. If necessary, you can assign your King (or Queen) to perform a Rule action to improve the BL by their Administratve rating and prevent such revolts.
  • Each point of BL provides you with another Leader, a Lieutenant, with which you can lead armies, conduct diplomacy, etc.
  • Each point of BL allows the possibility of having an Allied Leader. (Feudal Allies are subject to a different delimiter.)
  • Every two points of BL increases your Homeland Build Zone by one point, providing you the ability to build mobile units further away from your Homeland.
  • Every two points of BL increases the number of Princes you can appoint to be successors to the throne.
  • Each point of BL also improves the NMV by a minute amount, thus improving your earnings from International Trade.

The BL can be improved by the investment of GP and/or NFP, but nations with a large Imperial Size will have a more difficult time doing so. BL improvements are also limited in that they cannot exceed the Tech Level of the nation (as modified by the Government Type of the nation). Support costs for maintaining your BL are included in the Government Support figure.


Infrastructure (Infra) is a numeric value representing the actual governmental bodies and personnel performing the day-to-day functions of the government. Although a strong Infrastructure will maintain the tax base and permit more regions to belong to the empire, it also tends to soak up a larger and larger portion of the national revenues to support itself.

Each point of Infrastructure provides the administration of one Imperial Size point. If the Imperial Size exceeds your effective Infrastructure rating (Infra), there is the risk that some regions will downgrade their status, or even revolt outright. Insufficient Infra will also reduce the nation’s tax rate in proportion to the Infra shortfall. A King, Heir or Queen can Rule to bolster this Infra rating.

In addition, Lieutenants and Princes can be assigned to perform an Administer action to artificially assist the government in such difficult times. Each Leader so assigned can potentially improve the effective Infra rating, thus forestalling potential revolts and/or improving the tax rate.

Each point of Infrastructure also improves the National Market Value (NMV) by a minute amount, thus improving your earnings from International Trade.

Infrastructure can be improved by the investment of GP and/or NFP, but cannot exceed the limit imposed by your Tech Level and Government Type. Support costs for maintaining your Infrastructure are included in the Government Support figure.

Imperial Size

Imperial Size (IS) is a numeric value representing the difficulty of ruling a nation. In general, for every three regions or ten city levels under the control of a nation, the IS increases by one. This, however, is modified by the status of the regions, the Terrain of their controlled regions, the Geographic Zone, and Government Type of the Nation. A large Imperial Size can hamper BL improvements, but adds rather nicely to the national ITV, improving your Inter-Nation Trade income.

Each Nation has a minimum Imperial Size of one (1) at all times. See Calculating Imperial Size for the process used to calculate Imperial Size.

Homeland Build Zone

The Homeland Build Zone (HBZ) rating defines the heartland of your Nation. It limits the locations where you can build mobile military units.

Your Homeland is considered to be your actual Homeland region (which has a status of HM), unless your nation possesses a Capital city (if you have one, which is indicated by a C code). If you have a Capital city which is not in your Homeland, then you trace the Homeland Build Zone from the Capital city itself, which means you pay 1 AP to enter the surrounding non-Homeland region.

Thus if your HBZ is one (1) AP, then all Friendly regions or cities within 1 AP of your Homeland Build Zone Origin would be considered part of the HBZ. See the section on Construction: Building Armies for more details. If you have no Capital or your Capital is in your Homeland when tracing the HBZ do not count the region containing the Homeland.

You must be able to pay the full cost to enter the region (the base cost + the control modifier + the border terrain modifier and + regional terrain modifier for it to count, modified by the presence of roads).

You do not have to pay an extra 1 AP to enter a City in the region.

The HBZ itself is equal to your BL / 2, rounded up.

Example: The Egyptian Caliphate has its Capital at Alexandria in Egypt. Their HBZ is three (3). The furthest east that they could build a unit, at a friendly city, would be Sinai (Mansura counts 1, desert Sinai itself counts 2 actions to move into). To the west, they could only build at a friendly city in Ad'Diffah, as it would cost 4 Action Points to move into Libya. To the south, they could build at a friendly city as far as Thebes (Faiyum costs 1, Thebes 1, Nubia would be 2 more). If they held Cyprus, they could not build mobile units there as they would have to trace HBZ across a Sea Zone, which is not allowed.

Tax Status

This code expresses the status of the tax rate. There are six Tax Status Codes: N (Normal), C (Census), T (Thin Government), F (Famine), H (Heavy Taxation), R (Ruinous Taxation) and L (Countryside Looted). Each of these are explained below:

  • Normal: The tax rate is the tax rate of a normal economy. In a campaign running on five year turns, this will be 100%.
  • Thin Government: The tax rate is lowered because of insufficient Infrastructure and Royal Administration (Infra, King Ruling, Lieutenant on Admin.) to cover the nation’s Imperial Size.
  • Famine: The tax rate is lowered by a shortfall of agricultural output with insufficient reserves preserved for just such a rainy day.
  • Heavy Taxation: This tax rate represents a depression induced by heavy taxation or a loan default.
  • Ruinous Taxation: This tax rate represents a deep depression caused by decades of over-taxation which have ruined the economy of the nation.
  • Countryside Looted: Raiders have looted or raided your countryside, disrupting economic activity and hindering tax collection.
  • Census (optional rule): The tax rate is augmented by an existing Census. This will be 10% more than the base (normal) Tax Rate.

Any tax status other than Normal would cause any Census in operation to be lost. All Tax Statuses can apply to Nations, Religious Primacies or Orders, and Secret Empires.

The Tax Rate

The amount of Gold Points that you have to spend in a turn is equal to your Total Base Income multiplied by your Tax Rate. The result is your Net Income for the turn.

In most cases the basic Tax Rate of your Nation will be 100% so that you get the full amount of tax revenue that your tax collectors gather during the turn. This figure (100%) is based on each turn being five years long. If the game that you are in has an open position with a Tech Level of 8-9 in play then the years per turn drops to four years per turn and the Base Tax Rate drops to 80% (support costs also reduce by 20%).

The Tax Rate is also reduced by famines (Agro Point shortfall), insufficient government (your Infrastructure is less than your Imperial Size), tithes (Primate Religious Authorities squeezing you rather than the other way around) and other gruesome events like Bank failures, plagues and the general ravagement of the countryside by your enemies.

On the positive side your Tax Rate can be increased by 10% by having an active Census in effect within your nation.

Primacies and Secret Empires always tax as if they had an active Census.

In addition, the players so deem, they may adjust their Tax Rate voluntarily up or down, to the following maximums and minimums: The maximum Tax Rate is 150% (for a five year turn), while the minimum is that sufficient to provide funds to pay the government. Of course, once you start jacking the Tax Rate above 100% the peasants and other taxpayers start grumbling and sharpening their spears…

Table 2-9. Years per Turn

Tech Level Years per Turn Base Tax Rate
1-7 5 100%
8-9 4 80%
10-11 3 60%
12-13 2 40%
14-15 1 20%

Military Ratings

What follows are the Military Quality Ratings (QRs) of your armies. The maximum rating for each QR is determined by your Nation’s current Tech Level and Culture type (see Table 5-2). Each of these stats can be invested in to improve them. A given statistic can only increase by one point per turn. The number in brackets ([×]) is the maximum attainable for your particular Tech Level. When a statistic improves, all resources (GP and NFP) invested towards its improvement are expended and investment must begin again.

Cavalry Quality Rating

This number shows numerically how good in battle your Cavalry (mounted knights and men-at-arms) units are. In Medieval times this value will range from 0 (lowest) to the maximum allowed by your Tech Level.

Infantry Quality Rating

This number shows how good your infantry (footmen armed with spear, sword, bow or ax) units are, on a scale of 1 to (maximum allowed by Tech Level).

Warship Quality Rating

This number shows how good your warship (galleys, triremes, longships or warjunks) units are, on a scale of 0 to (maximum allowed by Tech Level).

Siege Quality Rating

The siege QR, which ranges from 1 to (maximum allowed by Tech Level), rates how effective your Siege (miners, engineers and sappers) units and other kinds of units (Infantry, Cavalry and Warships) are against fortified positions. This also shows how good your fortified positions (Field Forts and City Wall Points) are at resisting besiegers.

Espionage Ratings

The following four stats describe the power of your spies and assassins and their reach. Each of these stats can be invested in to improve them. A given statistic can only increase by one point per turn. When a statistic improves, all resources (GP and NFP) invested towards its improvement are expended and investment must begin again.

Operations Capacity

The Operations Capacity (OC) is the number of Intel Operations (OPs) that the nation can attempt each turn. In more concrete terms this is the number of espionage teams (groups of one to twenty people) that your nation currently maintains. The value ranges from 0 to (Tech Level).

Example: Your National Tech Level is 6 (Medieval - Crossbow) so the maximum Operations Capacity you can have is 6 as well.

Operations Bonus

The Operations Bonus (OB) is a value representing the quality of the support structure for your espionage teams. This covers the logistical support that your espionage can expect and make use of. This bonus is assigned to specific Operations and guidelines for its use are explained in use Of Intel Capacities and Bonuses. It ranges from 0 to (Tech Level).

Assassin Capacity

Assassin Capacity (AC) is the number of Assassination Operations that the nation can attempt in a turn. Like the Intel rating, this represents the number of assassins or assassin teams that your nation maintains. The value ranges from 0 to (Tech Level).

Assassin Bonus

Like the Operations Bonus, the Assassin Bonus (AB) represents the logistical and support structure of the nation on a scale of 0 to (Tech Level).

Religion Ratings

These are the stats relevant to the religion of a nation. Some of these stats can be invested in to improve them. A given statistic can only increase by one point per turn. When a statistic improves, all resources (GP and NFP) invested towards its improvement are expended and investment must begin again.


This label represents both the official national religion and the religion of the nation’s ruling class. Religion in the Middle Ages was a major factor in politics and international relations, and is therefore an important consideration in the game.

Your nation’s religion will affect many of your activities ranging from the number of troops required to garrison a subjugated region, to determining the effectiveness of your diplomacy, to possibly even determining who your allies and enemies might be.

There are four attributes associated with your Religion. They are Religion Type, Religious Strength, Religious Operations Capacity, and Religious Operations Bonus.

Religion Type

This is the actual kind of religion practiced by the ruling classes of your nation, and your King and his family. Each religion is represented by a two or three character code in your stat sheet and by a symbol on the maps.

Religion Strength

This statistic is on a scale of 1 to 10. This is a direct quantitative description of the strength of faith in your nation among all of the other adherents of your faith. This can be increased or decreased by a number of means which are covered in Religious Operations.

Religious Operations Capacity

Your Religious Operations Capacity (ROC) is the number of Religious Operations that your nation may attempt in a given turn. The ROC ranges from 0 to (Religious Strength).

See Table 9-4 for details of the Religious Operations available to you.

Religious Operations Bonus

Your Religious Operations Bonus (ROB) is the number of bonus points that can be allocated amongst the Religious Operations that your nation is attempting in a given turn. The ROB ranges from 0 to (Religious Strength). The more ROB points that can be allocated to a given effort, the greater a chance of success it will have.

Action Range

The Action Range (AR) is a value equal to one-half of your Tech Level, rounded up, which shows the maximum number of Action Points from a controlled region an Espionage or Religious Operation may be attempted with a normal chance of success. This rating, since it is directly tied to the Tech Level, cannot be invested in.

Note the expression of the Range in Action Points – this means barriers to movement (mountains, hostile lands, etc.) bar your activities, and benefits to movement (roads, sea zones) benefit.

Despite this limit, your action range always extends at least into regions adjacent to one you control, regardless of the Action Point cost to enter such a region.

Example: Your nations Tech Level is 6 (Medieval - Crossbow) so your Action Range is( 6 / 2 = 3 ) Action Points.


This section shows the nation's investment in the advancement of scientific knowledge and techniques.

University Investment

This is the total amount spent to promote universities and public education in the nation since the inception of the nation’s university system. Investment in University helps increase the University Level. This, in turn, affects the accrual of Tech Points by your nation. This is a good thing.

Years In Operation

This figure is how many years your current university system has been active.

University Rating

The University Rating is the value of the quality of the Educational and University system of the Nation. The University Rating is based on the amount of time the nation’s University system has been in operation and the amount of money or manpower actually invested in it. Once a University is created it becomes a self-perpetuating entity until it is somehow dismantled or destroyed. The formula for the University Rating is:



  • R is the resulting University Rating
  • I is the Investment
  • Y is the number of years in operation
  • T is the current national Tech Level
  • S is the current Imperial Size

Support Costs

These are the requisite costs to keep your national stats (armies, government, spies, religious orders, etc.) up to snuff. If these costs are not paid then bad things happen. Please note that all of the Support Costs are modified by the Year-per-Turn ration. In a campaign with a five year turns then they are at 100%. If a campaign shifts to four year turns, then the Support Costs are reduced to 80%. This is handled automatically by the GM.

Monetary Troop Support

This expenditure covers the minimum expenses required for the maintenance of the armed forces of the nation. If less is paid, then those units that are not supported disappear. The Troop Support cost is an easy calculation. Each unit type has a troop support cost defined for it. This much gold must be paid per unit that you have in your armies and garrisons at the beginning of the turn, before builds. This cost is further modified by the terrain of the region that the units ended the previous turn in, and whether they fought in a battle in the previous turn.

Units that were ‘On Campaign’ in the previous turn cost double to support. The effects of terrain upon troop support depends on the Society Type of the owning nation and the terrain type that the units ended the turn in.

Troop support is one-tenth the GPv purchase cost per turn.

Troop Support = TSC × TSM × ASM


  • TSC is the Troop Support Cost (from the Unit Builds Chart).
  • TSM is the Terrain Support modifier.
  • ASM is the Army Status modifier.

Table 2-10. Terrain Troop Support Modifiers

Terrain Civ. Barb. Nom. Seaf. pre-Col.
M 2.0 1.0 2.0 2.0 1.5
S 2.0 1.5 0.0 2.0 1.5
T 2.0 1.5 2.0 2.0 1.0
D 1.5 1.5 1.0 1.5 1.5
J 1.5 1.0 1.5 1.0 1.0
W 1.5 1.0 1.5 1.5 1.0
C 1.0 1.0 0.1 1.0 1.0
C2 1.0 0.5 0.1 1.0 1.0
I 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.5 1.0
O 2.0 2.0 1.0 2.0 1.5

Note that troop support costs are increased in Hostile Land Regions.

Table 2-11. Army Status Modifiers

Code Description Support Multiple
M Mutinous! ×0.0
P Prisoner ×0.0
E Sneaking Around... ×0.0
A Administering ×1.0
N Normal ×1.0
G In Garrison ×1.5
C On Campaign ×2.0
S Besieging A City ×2.0
B Being Besieged ×2.0
U Unused ×1.0


  • A Leader (and his army) have a Status of On Campaign if they have fought in any battle during the previous turn.
  • A Leader (and his army) have a status of In Garrison if they are the sole units in a Pacified region, and are thus serving as its garrison.
  • Leaders in Prison cannot command troops. A Mutinous Leader is not counted for Troop Support.
  • When in a non-Settled state, a Horde need not pay troop support on the Steppe and a reduced rate incultivated regions. This allows the horde time to grow vast via Horde Diplomacy or Conquest.
  • Unused refers to the status of blockaded fishing fleets and MSP. Note: only Merchant Houses in the Modern Era pay support costs for MSP.

Force Point Troop Support (Optional Rule)

This expenditure, unlike the others in this section, is levied in NFP (National Force Points) to maintain the current armies of the nation with replacements for men killed due to accident, or retired due to age.

This is calculated as a percentage of the total number of NFP deployed by this nation as Troops. The GM for each Campaign will set the percentage (though it will usually be 10%).

If you do not pay this Support each turn, your total army (including garrisons and wall-points) will lose units to satisfy the Support percentage. In this case, the GM will decide what units disappear.

Government Support

This expenditure covers the cost of supporting the government and its employees, as represented by the BL. If the sums called for by Government Support are not met each turn, then your hard earned Bureaucracy and Infrastructure points will degrade - leading to the eventual dissolution of the nation. If, on a turn, the player invests funds in increasing BL and/or Infrastructure and does not pay their Support, then GP will be deducted from the improvement fund(s) in an attempt to make the payments.

Gold Points invested in previous turns, however, cannot be used for this purpose.

The following formula shows the calculation for determining Government Support. Support is the resulting Government Support. BL is the Bureaucratic Level and Infra is the Infrastructure rating.

Example: The Swedish-Russian Empire, a bloated monolith of autocracy, has a BL of 10.and an Infrastructure of 22. Their per turn cost to support this excess of civil administration would be ((10.× 2) + 22)2 / 2 = 882 GP. Don't you wish your nation were so large?

Project Support

If the nation has produced Megalithic Constructs (e.g., Roads, Canals, Great Walls and so forth), then these constructs must be maintained and cared for, a process that costs money, which is covered with this expenditure. Each level of Megalithic Constructs that your nation maintains costs 5 GP per five-year turn.

If you are short of GP, you may spend NFP instead, with each NFP so spent counting as 5 GP.

Note: A Religious Primate or Secret Empire does not pay Project Support for megalithic constructs or Public Works in provinces in which they have either a Religious Control status or a Secret Empire control status. They do, however, pay project support for megalithic constructs or Public Works in provinces they directly control.

You can pay project support with NFP (1 NFP = 5 GP). This simulates corveè labor for highway, dike and irrigation maintenance and repair. The Public Works upkeep is included in this expenditure.

Following is the formula for PWB upkeep, where Support is the Project Support Cost, PWB is the total Public Works Bonus and IS is the Imperial Size of the Nation:


That is: the square of the Public Works Bonus divided by (Imperial Size plus 2) times 10.

Example: The Mali Ax empire is blessed with many grandiose temples and broad public roads. Over the centuries they have built 15 levels of megalithic constructions. In addition they also have 800 PWB points and an Imperial Size of 8. 800 divided by (8+2 x 10 = 100) is 8, which is then squared, resulting in (8 x 8 = 64) GP in support; assuming, of course, 5 year turns. The 15 Megalithic construct levels, in turn, cost (5 × 15) = 75gp more to support. Their full project support is:64 + 75 = 139 GP per turn.

Intel Support

The Intel structure of the nation must be paid for and this cost is noted here, based on how large it has grown. This cost covers the base requirements for the Intel Ratings and is usually the cost needed to perform standard Intel Operations.

Intel support is calculated as follows:


Where: S is the calculated support cost, Oc is the Operations Capacity, Ob is the Operations Bonus, Ac is the Assassin Capacity, and Ab is the Assassin Bonus.

Religious Support

If the nation is maintaining an aggressive and active Religious Structure, then the cost to maintain that is noted here. This figure covers the basic cost to maintain the ratings that the nation already has in this area.

Religious support is calculated as follows:


Where S is the calculated Religious Support, Oc is the Operations Capacity and Ob is the Operations Bonus.

Training Support

This support cost keeps the troops Quality Ratings up to snuff. In some games, this field is combined with Troop Support. Training Support is calculated as follows:


Where S is the calculated Training Support, tQR is the sum of the amount of Quality Ratings greater than seven (7), and TS is the national Troop Support.

Example: The Seiwa Japanese have two QR’s greater than seven; Cavalry QR is 9 and Infantry QR is 8. Their troops support total is currently 23.4. tQR would be (9-7 + 8-7 = 3), so (3/2) squared is 2.25 times 23.4 equals 52.65. This divided by 200 is 0.26 GP. Whew, that’s a lot!

Total Support

And just because we are a bunch of nice guys at Throne Enterprises, all the support costs are added together here for your convenience.


These are the stats which regulate food production and consumption in your country.

Agro Production

Agro production is the sum of the Agro produced by the Nation’s regions, Fishing Fleets and Port Cities. Production figures can be calculated by the following formula:


Where A is the agro production, GPv is the regional gold point value, Pm is the Production Multiple, Pwb is the regional public works value, 1(port) adds 1 if there is a Port City in the region and Sm is the Status Production multiple.

Table 2-12. Agro Point Production Multiples

Region Terrain Production multiple
c2 (Intensively Cultivated) 2.0
c (Cultivated) 1.0
I (Island) 1.0
w (Wilderness) 0.5
J (Jungle) 0.3
m / s / d / t / o 0.0

Table 2-13. Regional Status Production Multiples

Status Description Production multiple
A Full Ally 1.0
EA Economic Ally 1.0
F Friendly 1.0
HM Homeland 1.0
P Pacified 1.0
PT Pacified Tributary 1.0
T Tributary 1.0
(Others) All Other Statuses 0.0

Example: Kwanto, in Japan, is a 4 GPv, Intensive Cultivation terrain province. The Murashima Shogunate player has built it up to maximum PWB, 80, and has their capital city there, Edo, which is a 12 GPv port city. The province has a Homeland status. The agro production of Kwanto, then, would be ((4×2 + 80/5 + 1) × 1 = 25 ) agro points.
National Agro =
(( Sum of Regional Agro ) +
( Total MSP Assigned to Fishing / 20 )) ×
Harvest Multiple

Variable Harvests

The Harvest Code represents the unpredictability in agricultural production due to variations in the weather from year to year. The unpredictability of the harvest requires nations to plan for both the fat and the lean years that are sure to come.

Each nation has a random harvest modifier calculated each turn, which varies from 75% to 125% of baseline production. As a result, your harvest is unlikely to remain stable from turn to turn.

The Harvest Code is calculated from this harvest modifier. A Bad Harvest is 85% or less, and a Good Harvest is 111% or better, and Normal is the remainder between.

In addition to providing for turn by turn Agro Consumption, increases in Agro production will aid in increasing the population of the nation.

Agro Consumption

Agro Consumption is the amount of Agro consumed by the Nation’s cities, armies and general populace. There are three kinds of consumption: by Cities, by Armies and by Saved NFP.

Cities consume Agro points equal to:


Where T is the Terrain Consumption Multiple, C is the City Type Consumption Multiple and S is the City Control Status Consumption Multiple.

Table 2-14. Terrain Consumption Multiple

Terrain Type Multiple
Cultivated 1.0
Intensive Cultivation 1.0
Desert 2.0
Island 1.0
Jungle 1.0
Mountain 2.0
Oasis 2.0
Steppe 2.0
Tundra 2.0
Wilderness 1.5

Table 2-15. City Type Consumption Multiple

City Type Multiple
Treasury City 1.0
Capital+Port City on a Road 0.8
Normal City 1.0
Besieged or Isolated City 1.5
Capital City 1.0
Sacred City 1.0
Port City 0.8
Royal Road City 1.0
Silk Road City 1.0
University City 1.0
Silk Road City w/Road 1.25
Port City on the Silk Road 1.0
Port City on a Road 0.8

Table 2-16. City Status Consumption Multiple

City Status Multiple
At War 0.0
Claim 0.0
Economic Ally 1.0
Feudal Ally 0.0
Friendly 1.0
Full Ally 1.0
Homeland 1.0
Hostile 0.0
Non-Paying Tributary 0.0
Occupied 0.0
Pacified 1.0
Pacified Tributary 1.0
Tributary 1.0
Uncontrolled 0.0

Armies consume Agro equal to:

Agro = (Number of units / 25) × TerrainSupportMultiple

The TerrainSupportMultiple can be found in Table 2-10. Since troop support is also modified by Army Status, you will find that sending armies to fight (doubling their troop support for campaigning) in the mountains (doubling their agro consumption for terrain) can get expensive…

Note that ships assigned to Merchant Shipping duties are not included in the count of military units in this equation.

NFP in the Saved Pool consumes Agro at the rate of 1 Agro per 20 NFP.

Agro Deficits

An Agro Deficit is a shortfall of Agro after subtracting Consumption needs from Production. Unfortunately, such shortfalls generally threaten famine, revolts, riots, and other dire consequences upon a nation that suffers severe shortfalls for too long a period of time. The most glaring effect of an Agro shortage is a drop in the Tax Rate and thereby a drop in your nation’s net income. Of course, there are plenty of other ways to tarnish a Nation’s Tax Rate.

Agro Surplus

An Agro Surplus is an excess of Agro after subtracting Consumption needs from Production. Agro Surplus can be dealt with in a variety of ways, including:

  • Saving them into Agro Reserves.
  • Selling them to other Nations (after putting them into Reserve).
  • Agro Conversion into GP or NFP.

Agro Reserves

Surplus Agro production can be saved to offset potential famines and/or other disasters by adding the surplus to the Nation’s Agro Reserves. It costs only 1 GP per each point of Agro you wish to add to Reserves.

Unfortunately, the entire Reserve will suffer a 30% attrition loss each turn and that attrition loss will occur after the addition of any new Agro Points to the Reserve.

Still, the Agro Reserves are well worth saving since they can prevent future crippling Agro deficits. If, on a given turn, there is a shortfall in Production and the Consumption demands cannot be met from the new Production, then Reserve Agro is used to make up the difference, perhaps saving the realm from famine and disaster.

Unless otherwise specified by the player, all Agro reserves are located at the Capital (or homeland, if there is no Capital).

Selling Agro Surpluses

Surplus Agro can be sold by a Nation to any of its trade partners, at any price that can be mutually agreed upon. The transaction normally can be handled directly through the trade connections between the two nations. If for some reason the Agro needs to be delivered to a location not controlled by either of the trade partners, then the Agro must be physically transported to the delivery site, either by a Leader (if by land), or by a Leader and ships (if by sea).

Surplus Agro, not already in the Agro Reserve, must be preserved at a cost of 1 GP per Agro before it can be sold (and transported). Agro already in the Reserve, however, can be sold directly, without additional cost.

Each Agro Point requires two (2) cargo spaces for transport.

The transferred Agro arrives during the turn, which means it cannot be used to offset a Famine status existing at the beginning of the turn. It can only be used to offset a shortfall in production on the turn after delivery.

Converting Agro Surpluses

Surplus Agro Points can be sold to the common population and nobles in return for gold, labor or investments in projects of various supports. The surplus Agro represents not only actual foodstuffs but also the labor associated with producing it. Note that the Reserve Agro is purely stored food and cannot be converted to gp or nfp in this way (though it can be sold for gp to a trade partner).

The options available to your Nation depend on the size of your nation’s Base (pre-Tax) Revenue, and are detailed on the following table:

Table 2-17. Agro Surplus Conversion Options

Base Rev. Surplus Agro... Trade in for...
0-50 GP 1 Agro 1 GP
1 Agro 1 NFP
50-100 GP 2 Agro 1 GP
3 Agro 1 NFP
100+ GP 2 Agro 1 GP investment in a rating.
4 Agro 1 NFP toward a Project(*)

Note: (*) In this case, a Project is considered to be any National Project, or any construction that does not involve units that can move and/or fight. So you can use this “project” NFP to build cities, or roads, or colonize provinces, but not for troops.

The Leaders

Each nation can have a maximum of (Tech Level + 6) Leaders in total. This includes Kings, Heirs, Princes, Allies, Feudal Allies, Bishops and Lieutenants. Some types of Leaders are also limited in number, as per the following:

  • One King (K)
  • One Heir (H)
  • ( BL ) Lieutenants
  • (( BL / 2 ) Princes (rounded up)
  • ( BL ) Allied Leaders
Example: A Tech Level five nation would be limited to: 1 King, 1 Heir, 5 Lieutenants, 5 Allied Leaders, and 3 Princes. This, however, is 15 Leaders total, while the Tech limit is (5+6=11). So, the GM would limit the number of Princes and Allied Leaders to no more than 4 in combination – say, 2 Allied Leaders and 2 Princes.

The number of Feudal Allies or Mercenary Leaders that can serve your nation is limited only by the total number of allowed Leaders (TL+6). Each Leader and its attendant Army (if any) is listed on the status report in the following format:


#1 KBBB Arthur 24 100i Avalon Normal 12gp, 3ag King of the Britons

  • The Number is the Leader’s ID.
  • The Leader Type Stats are four figures: The Leader’s Type, the Leader’s Combat Rating, the Leader’s Diplomacy Rating and the Leader’s Charisma. A fuller explanation of these is provided in Leader Type Stats.
  • The Leader Name can be up to twenty characters long, and is either provided by the player or by the GM. Leaders from Allied provinces have their province of origin filled in here.
  • A Leader may also have a Demesne (or Domain) note, which will appear on the line beneath the Leader name. This is used to particular titles, or more commonly, to indicate the home province or city of an Allied Leader.
  • The Leader Age is the age of the Leader as of the end of the previous turn.
  • The Army Contents are the various units that make up the composition of the army itself. See the Unit Construction Chart for a full description of all of the army unit codes.
  • Location is the region or city name that the army ended the last turn in. If the army is in a City, then the region will be shown as well.
  • Status is determined by a number of things; whether the Leader is commanding an army on campaign, whether he is sneaking around in some hostile province, or incarcerated in some crude jail. As indicated by the following table, it can have a substantial effect on the cost of troop support for an army.
  • Treasury and Supplies: A Leader carrying Gold or Agro points has them listed here, at the end of the Army line.

Army Number

The Army Number ranges from 01 (your King) up to your maximum. This number remains constant and is always used to refer to the Leader and his troops in orders. On some occasions a Leader may change his number (like when the Heir becomes the King). In this case always refer to the Leader in your orders by the most recent number.

Leader Type Stats

There are ten general types of Leaders in Lords of the Earth: King (K), Queen (Q), Heir (H), Prince (P), Lieutenant (L), Ally (A), Bishop or Papal Legate (B), Feudal Ally (F), Spy (S), Regent (E) and Mercenary Commander (M).

Each of these have their own effects pertaining to game play and are more fully explained in National Leaders And Their Stats. Each Leader statistic ranges from 1 to 11, where 1 is the lowest. Stats of 10 and above are noted by letter codes (A’ for 10, ‘B’ for 11 and so on). Most Leaders tend to be of average ability, around 6.

Rolling 2 six-sided dice and subtracting 1 from the result generates the ratings. This gives a shifted bell-curve with the average at six. There are minor modifiers based on the type of Nation you command.

The Combat Rating reflects the ability of the Leader to plan military campaigns, lead his men in the chaos of battle and to recover from unexpected defeats.

The Diplomacy Rating is the negotiating ability of a Leader and is the key statistic for diplomatic endeavors.

The Charisma Rating is denoted just like the Combat and Diplomacy stats. This statistic may change due to events of the Leader's life and other circumstances. The Charisma rating indicates how popular the Leader is with the common people and any troops that he might command. This rating is used for various determinations in Revolts, Civil Wars, Dynastic Failures and such like events.

Each Leader also has a fourth, hidden, statistic. For Kings that statistic is his Administration ability. That number added to the national Bureaucracy Level is a King’s Command Control Radius. For all other Leaders, the hidden statistic is Loyalty to the King. Leaders that are not that loyal may rebel if they are outside the King’s Command Control Radius or if there is a Dynastic Failure. Princes and Heirs also have a fifth, hidden ability: a limited Administration rating until they inherit the throne.

When a King is Ruling, his Leadership is also added to the National Infrastructure rating to see how large an Imperial Size he can control.

The Royal Family

These are the Spouses and Children of the King and any Heirs or Princes that do not appear as Leaders in the Leaders section. Listed here are their Names, Genders, Ages and applicable Notes. It is assumed that all these other family members are in the Capital or Homeland during the course of the turn unless specifically moved somewhere else.

New Spouses are acquired by marriage through the Diplomacy action or by arrangement between Nations.

New Children are generated by the Have Children (HC) action of Kings, Heirs and Princes.

Theocracies, Democracies and Federal Democracies do not get Heirs or Princes and do not have to worry about having children and maintaining family lineages. When the King of a Federal Democracy dies (or ends their term of office), they are replaced by a new King.

Regions and Cities List

Next on the status report is a list of all of the regions under the control of the nation, and, in some circumstances, some that aren’t. The general format is as follows, reading from left to right:

  • Region Name
  • the Gold Point Value (GPv).
  • Regional Public Works
  • the Region Spacer Code.
  • Region Resistance Value
  • in parentheses, the number of years since the Region was conquered if either the region or the city in the region is Pacified or Pacified Tributary.
  • the Control Status
  • the Region Religion
  • the Terrain Type of the region
  • Levels of Megalithic Construction in the region
  • garrisoned troops
  • the percentage of the region that is cultivated
  • the number of Wall Points in the region in brackets if there is a Fortress or port area, a colon then
  • a marker for Trade Center, if there is one in the region
  • notes about the region not covered elsewhere
  • the language of the region
  • A notation indicating any other Nations or Religious Primacies who also have a control status in this region.

Arcadia 1+2s5 (25) [10] p rc w 1 : 6i 30% : (G) Grail Fra

Region Name

The Region Name is a semi-historical geographical name that the people in the area are likely to use for themselves. This Region Name is a constant within a given campaign, but may vary from campaign to campaign.

Region Gold Value

This is the Base Gold Production of a region. This factor may be augmented by Regional Public Works. Regional Genocide, Loot and Scorched Earth actions, raids, war, slaving and various other events may also affect this rating. See Regional Income for more information.

Regional Public Works Bonus

This is the amount of economic augmentation done to the region by rural Public Works Projects. These include farm roadways, irrigation canals, erosion dikes, grain silos, highway signs, fences, mills and levees. The existence of these will improve the GP and Agro productivity of the region, as well as increase the population of the province.

Region Spacer Code

The Regional Spacer Code denotes special regions, like regions forming the Silk Route, hostile land regions, and so on.

Table 2-18. Region Spacer Codes

Spacer Code Description
/ Normal Region
f Fur Line Region
h Hostile Region
s Silk Road Region

Region Resistance Value

The Resistance Value is how much a region will resist an attack or a diplomatic attempt. A higher value represents a greater resistance to change. Thus more resistant regions will be more reluctant to join your nation and more likely to revolt. Conversely, low resistance regions are easy to woo or conquer, and also less likely to abandon you at the first sign of trouble.

To control an empty province (one with no GPv or RV) still requires 1 troop unit.

Control Level

There are 14 Control Levels that a Region may have in relation to your Nation. In ascending order of Control they are: At War (aw), Hostile (hs), Uncontrolled (un) or Neutral (n) or Occupied (oc), Claimed (c), Non-Paying Tributary (nt), Feudal Allied (fa), Tributary (t) or Pacified Tributary (pt), Economic Ally (ea), Allied (a), Pacified (p) or Friendly (f), and Homeland (hm).

Regions with At War, Hostile or Uncontrolled statuses will not usually appear in the Regions and Cities section of the status report. Hostile and At War regions are kept track of by the GM. Control status definitions are explained below, and are listed in ascending order of control status. The Homeland is the maximum status that a region can ever have.

In the rules that follow, there are references to “having a status greater than…”. This refers to the order in which the Control Statuses were listed above. Feudal Allied, then, has a status greater than Non-Paying Tributary.

If a position has two sets of status within a Region or City (for instance a Primacy having Economic Ally and Church) the Open Nation status supercedes the lesser status. The lesser status will be recorded in case the Control Level is subsequently lost.

Many locations will be defended by a native army consisting of its militia and a mobile force composed of the local nobility’s household troops and any professionals employed by them. Under some circumstances the mobile force will join the National Army if the location becomes Friendly through Diplomacy (but not through Colonization, Settlement, or the transition of Pacified to Friendly).

At War (aw)

These regions don’t like you one bit. Once a region is At War with you, it will wage war on your country until you kill it or their current king dies. You have the least control over these regions.

Hostile (hs)

These regions are generally displeased about having you as a neighbor. Thus Hostile regions are tougher to woo than neutral regions. If the region had been attacked by your nation recently or raided or insulted, chances are that region will be hostile.

Uncontrolled (un)

Uncontrolled neutrals are indifferent to you, and hopefully indifferent to everyone else, too. This is the base Control Status of regions that a diplomacy action attempts to improve upon.

However, when a Nation conquers a region but fails to capture or isolate an enemy city or fortress in the region, the region remains Uncontrolled and must be garrisoned to prevent revolt.

If an Uncontrolled location becomes Friendly via Diplomacy then its mobile force will join the National Army.

Pacified (p)

Pacified regions are those conquered outright by your Nation’s armies in war. You are providing the full administration of the region and are extracting every last ducat out of the natives. These regions must be garrisoned and thus will not revolt unless the garrison revolts, or is wiped out by a native uprising. You cannot build mobile troops in the region, but can build fortifications. In time, Pacified regions may turn Friendly if they are of the same Religion and Language as your Nation.

Note that whilst a Pacified region remains as Occupied on the status report of a defeated nation it cannot become Friendly through Diplomacy but only by Colonization.

If there is a hostile city or fortress in the region it must be under an effective siege, for the region to be Pacified.

Pacified Tributary (pt)

Pacified Tributary regions are those that have been defeated in battle by your armies and an indigenous government has been installed at your whim. They provide the administration of the region and handle all internal affairs. Your Nation, in turn, gets tribute from them. These regions are very likely to revolt in times of trouble.

Should a Pacified Tributary region be attacked then it will only be defended by a native army if the invaders are attempting to Pacify or Pacify to Tributary the region.

Should the region become Friendly (through Diplomacy) then the mobile force and militia do not become national troops.

Claimed (c)

Claimed regions are those in which, through trade agreements, marriage or blood-ties, your Nation has some interest and some legal stake in the ruling house or group therein. Such regions do not count for Imperial Size, since you do not control them at all, but the status allows you to build upon the link to enhance the relationship at a later time. Any number of Nations can Claim a given region. Claims can be lost through hostile diplomatic actions, or if your Nation suffers a Dynastic Failure.

Should a Claimed region be attacked then it will be defended by a native army. Should the region become Friendly (through Diplomacy) then its mobile force joins the National Army but the militia do not.

Non-Paying Tributary (nt)

Non-Paying Tributary regions have agreed to give your Nation’s armies right of passage and have paid some homage to your ruler. However, your Nation does not have any hand in the administration of the region and does not gain any direct revenues from such a region. Such regions will revolt at the first opportunity. You cannot build any troops (mobile or not) in such a region.

Non-Paying Tributary cities do not count for the purposes of calculating Inter-City Trade or basing Merchant Shipping. A non-paying tributary province can be shared by two or more nations.

Should a Non-Paying Tributary region be attacked then it will be defended by a native army. Should the region become Friendly (through Diplomacy) then the mobile force and militia do not become national troops.

Tributary (t)

Tributary regions have accepted your Nation as their overlord and pay a small tax in tribute, as well as allowing your armies passage. Your Nation cannot build mobile troops in the region, but field fortifications are tolerated. The native forces will fight with your armies if the region itself is attacked. Tributary regions are very likely to revolt if an opportunity arises.

A tributary province can be shared by two nations.

Should a Tributary region be attacked then it will be defended by a native army. Should the region become Friendly (through Diplomacy) then its mobile force joins the National Army but the militia do not.

Feudal Allied (fa)

Feudal Allied regions have agreed to provide your Nation with fighting forces in time of war in return for their own autonomy within your Nation. You do not collect gold or grain from these regions and cannot build National troops (mobile or non-mobile) in them. However, you can build Allied troops for the natives, or give them National troops - which then become Allied troops. No support need be paid for these units. Feudal Allies are fickle and are prone to revolt at any opportunity. Each turn, the Feudal army can be called up and used as a normal army as long as they end the turn back in their home region.

The Leader of a Feudal Ally appears on the status report with his armies and is denoted by an F Leader type code. He can only perform those Actions which use the Combat stat for resolution.

If the Feudal troops are involved in a campaign when the time arrives for them to go home at the end of the turn, they will return home, regardless of the situation. If a Feudal Ally is prevented from returning home, he may revolt.

Should a Feudal Allied region become Friendly (through Diplomacy) then the Allied troops become national troops.

Economic Ally (ea)

Economic Allies are integrated into your Nation economically; they provide full taxes and agricultural produce, but have reserved their military forces for their own use. You cannot build any troops for your Nation in the area. These regions are moderately likely to revolt if an opportunity presents itself. They are more likely to switch to another Nation’s control due to diplomatic maneuvering than outright revolt.

Should an Economic Allied region be attacked then it will be defended by a native army. Should the region become Friendly (through Diplomacy) then its mobile force joins the National Army but the militia do not.

Allied (a)

Allied regions are fully committed to your Nation. They provide a good portion of their economic output to the Nation, and they allow passage of National armies. National troops still cannot be built in the region, but the Nation may build troops for the region. The Allied regional Leader appears on the status report, along with his Active army, and can be moved about as pleases the player. He cannot, however, take hostile action against his own region or do Diplomacy upon it. Whether an Allied region revolts during some national crisis is dependent upon their ruler’s Loyalty, which varies wildly.

Should an Allied region become Friendly (through Diplomacy or Leader death) then the Allied troops become national troops.

Diplomacy actions against an Allied region must be conducted with the Allied Leader present.

Friendly (f)

Friendly regions are fully assimilated into your Nation. You can build all kinds of National troops therein (assuming of course, that there is a city or port there, and the region is within the HBZ) and receive full revenue from the region. Of course, the burden of administration is full borne by the Nation for such regions. They are also the major source of National Force Points. They rarely revolt.

Occupied (oc)

Occupied regions are Friendly or Homeland regions that have been seized by another Nation. They remain on your status report with an ‘oc’ status — producing neither revenue nor National Force Points until such time as you retake them, whereupon they revert to their previous status; you suffer a Dynastic Failure; or they become friendly to the conquering nation (by colonization).

Homeland (hm)

The Homeland region is the focal point of your nation. You can build most National troops at the Homeland, even if there is not a city there. Your government will be centered at the Homeland and is therefore the site of the capital city if a Capital has not been built elsewhere.

Region Religion

The specific practicing religion of the region is listed here. Region Religion is usually the same as the National Region, but sometimes it will be different.

Terrain Type

This is the prevailing type of land in the region.

Megalithic Constructions

The number of Megalithic Constructions (MC) built in the province are noted here as a numeral. The Notes area may have more details on what, exactly, was built in the province.

Years from Conquest

The YfC figure is the number of years since this province, or city, was pacified by this Nation. This figure will continue to increment while the province is occupied and while it has not become a Friendly province.


These are the troops left in the region without a Leader. Garrisons are required in any region or city with a status of Uncontrolled (see Controlling Provinces Containing Hostile Fortifications) or Pacified. A successful garrison must meet both numerical and unit type requirements. Failure to meet either requirement will cause the region or city to revolt, and whatever units had been on garrison duty will be destroyed.

To control an empty Region or City (one without GPv or RV) still requires 1 troop unit. If a (-/-) location has no garrison then it ceases to be controlled. If a city or fortress is located in an uncontrolled (-/-) region it may be outside the command control radius and if so is likely to degrade or revolt. An unwalled city in such a wasteland, even if within the CCR, is doomed as its citizens are preyed upon by wild beasts and isolated bands of savages.

Regional Garrisons

The unit type requirements for regions differ according to the Terrain Type of the region. Cultivated, Wilderness, and Mountain region garrisons must be composed of Infantry, Cavalry, and/or Field Forts. Steppe and Desert region garrisons must be composed of either Cavalry, or twice the Cavalry requirement in Infantry and/or Field Forts.

The size of a regional garrison must equal or exceed the Modified Resistance Value of the region. The Modified Resistance Value can be calculated using the following equation:

Modified Resistance Value =
Regional Resistance ×
Terrain Multiple ×
Religion Modifier

The Terrain Multiple can be determined from the following table where Culture is the Culture Type of the occupying Nation, and Terrain Type is the regional terrain of the occupied region. A wilderness Island is treated as an Island for the purposes of a garrison. The Religion Modifier is shown in the second table following.

Keep in mind that troops on garrison duty are not prepared to defend against a (well led) army. Unless a Leader is present, garrison troops including a city with defenses (at least one troop unit or wall point) will fight with a combat Temporary Leadership in command. By contrast, an army accompanied by a Leader will fight with a combat Leadership equal to the Leader’s combat rating.

Table 2-19. Garrison Terrain Modifiers

Culture c c2 w s j i d m t o
Pre-Colum. 1 1 1 2c 1 1 2c 1 2 1
Seafaring 1 1 2 2c 2 1 2c 2 2 1
Civilized 1 1 2 2c 2 1 2c 2 2 1
Barbarian 2 2 1 2c 1 1 2c 1 2 2
Nomadic 1 2 2 1c 2 1 1c 2 2 1


  • All regions can be garrisoned with infantry save for steppe.
  • All regions requiring a cavalry garrison (those marked with a c) can be garrisoned with infantry or field forts in twice the cavalry amount. An exception to this applies in the case of regions where there is no Cavalry in use (pre-Cav Count America, or South Africa).
  • Islands can be garrisoned by warship units of the nfp cost equivalent to the infantry or cavalry unit garrison requirement.
  • All listed numbers are factors that are multiplied by the Region Resistance Value.

Table 2-20. Garrison Religion Modifiers

Regional Religion is... Modifier
Tolerant of Your Religion 1.5
Hostile to Your Religion 2.0
The same as Your Religion 1.0

City Garrisons

To garrison a Pacified city there must be at least as many troops as the City Resistance Value. Only Cavalry or Infantry units can garrison a city. Siege Engineers cannot garrison a city. City Wall points do not count for its garrison.

Example: The Austrians have captured the port city of Venice, which is 7 GPv in size and has 12 Wall Points. They must garrison the city with at least ( 12/2 + 7^½ + 1 = 9) points of infantry or cavalry.

If the city is of a religion Tolerant of your own religion, then the garrison requirement is one and a half times larger. If the city is of a Hostile religion, then the garrison requirement is doubled.

Maximum Status For A Region

The maximum control status your Nation can achieve in a region through diplomacy or conquest will be the lower of the two statuses as determined from the following tables. In time, Pacified regions may turn Friendly if they are of the same Religion and Language as the conquering nation.

Note that a higher status is possible if a region or city is colonized.

Table 2-21. Maximum Region Status by Religion

Your National
The regional religion is the...
Same Tolerant Hostile
1 HM F A
2-3 HM F EA
4-5 HM A EA
6-7 HM EA T
8-9 HM EA NT
10 HM T P

Table 2-22. Maximum Region Status by Terrain

Controlling Culture is...
c2 (Intns Cult.) Hm Hm Hm F Hm
c (Cultivated) Hm Hm Hm F Hm
w (Wilderness) F Hm EA FA Hm
m (Mountain) FA F T EA FA
s (Steppe) FA T F NT FA
d (Desert) FA T F NT EA
t (Tundra) F F NT T F
i (Island) F F T Hm F
j (Jungle) F EA NT EA F
o (Oasis) T NT A NT NT
City F F F F F

If the controlling Culture changes (for example, Barbarian to Civilised) the earlier status remains even if the status is above that permitted for the culture on Table 2-22. However, if for some reason, the region revolts, the nation will not be able to regain the earlier status through Diplomacy. It could pacify the region and wait for it to become Friendly, or colonize the region after re-conquest.


A number might appear on the status report just after the garrison in brackets. This construct is a fortress or citadel which is basically a walled city without the city. The number in brackets is the number of Wall Points that make up the Fortress. There can only be one Fortress per region and that Fortress cannot exceed (Builder's Siege QR) Wall Points in size.

A port Fortress is indicated by a trailing p code, while a Fortress built within a City is indicated by a trailing c code. A port fortress within a city is indicated by a pc code.

Constructing Fortresses is discussed in Building Fortresses.


Below each Region line in the Regions List, there may be a second, indented, line that describes the city that resides in that region. Cities, like regions, are described by a general format:

  • The City Name, followed an opening bracket...
  • the Gold Point Value (GPv), followed by a plus (+) sign
  • the City Public Works, followed by an (i), which indicates…
  • the City Industrial Capacity
  • the City Type Code ( p marks a Port, for example)
  • Wall Points, followed by a closing bracket
  • The City Resistance Value in angle brackets (like so: <4>)
  • Control Status of the city
  • Religion of the city population
  • A colon and then the City Garrison
  • Any applicable Notes.
  • Prevalent Language of the city population
  • A notation to indicate any other nation or religious order that also has a control status in this City.

Orleanais [3+10i15p15] <9> f rc : 15i Notes Fra

City and Trade Center Industry

Each city (and Trade Centers for Nomads and Barbarians) has an Industrial Capacity. This is used in the construction of:

  • Heavy-class units, if they are in play in your campaign.
  • Siege Engineers.
  • Ship units.
  • Some types of Monolithic Construction. In the Middle Ages this includes bridges. In the Modern Era many types of Monolithic Construction require the expenditure of Industrial Capacity.
    In the Middle Ages the Industrial Capacity must be supplied by a controlled city in the same region as the Monolithic Construction. This may require the construction of a city in the region to provide the necessary capacity. In the Modern Era the city can be connected to the region of the Monolithic Construction via a controlled railroad.

To be utilized for building units, the city or Trade Center has to be within the Homeland Build Zone.

The Industrial Capacity of a city can be used outside the HBZ for building Monolithic Construction bridges.

Each City has an Industrial Capacity calculated using the following equation, rounded up:

Industrial Capacity =
(GPv + (pwb/15))
x CultureModifier
x TL
x EconomicModifier
x Tax Multiple

A Trade Center is treated as though it has a GPv of 5.

Table 2-23. Industry Culture Modifiers

Cultural Type Modifier
Pre-Columbian 0.75
Barbarian/Nomad 0.5
Seafarer 0.9
Civilized 1.0

Table 2-24. Industry Economic Modifiers

Economic Type Modifier
Agrarian 0.5
Guild 0.75
Free 1.0
Slave 0.6

Note: Port City capacity is not separated for ground unit and ship unit construction. There is only one Capacity, reflecting the specialization of port cities for ship construction.

Finding Industrial Capacities on the Stat Sheet

The city-based Intrinsic Industrial Capacity is listed on your stat sheet as part of the City description, between the City PWB and City Type like so:

Avalon [3+30i15p4]

This city has a GPv of 3, 30 Public Works, an Intrinsic Industrial Capacity of 15, is a Port City, and has 4 Wall Points.

Control of Intrinsic Industrial Capacity

The ‘native’ Industrial Capacity of a city is, by default, under the control of the Nation controlling the City with an ‘open’ status (Tributary, Pacified, Friendly, etc.). A Cultic, Order, or Primacy status does not give access to the Industrial Capacity of a city. They do not own the generic industry in the city - they own what they build, but they do not get the rest for free.

If a Holy City, or Order Fortress resides in a Neutral city (one where no position has an ‘open’ status) then they can use the Intrinsic Industrial Capacity for a flat fee of 1 GP per point of industrial capacity to hire the local workshops. If two or more resident organizations attempt to use the same capacity then they gain equal fractions.

The Nation that owns the Intrinsic Industrial Capacity of the city a Holy City or Order Fortress resides in can rent the Intrinsic Industrial Capacity to them, or allow them to use it in exchange for some other favor.

A Secret Empire can attempt to access unused capacity for a flat fee of 1 GP per point of industrial capacity to hire the local workshops - but they would have to hide, via intel, such an effort. Building a secret underground or hidden city somewhere would be much more effective.

City Type Codes

The spacer code between the Public Works and the Wall Point values of a city is used to define, for the convenience of the players and GMs, which of a number of different types of city it is. In general, each code describes the following attributes of a City:


Table 2-25. Base City Types

Type Base Code Notes
Capital C
Road R Must be connected to the capital by Royal Road.
Port City P
Silk Route S Silk Route must be “working”. Overidden by Road.
University U Only if the University is not in the Capital.
Sacred City H
Treasury $

Table 2-26. Meta-City Types

Meta-Type Code
Road and Port  %
Silk-Route and Sacred City  !
Sacred City and University *

Table 2-27. Master City Type List

Description Code Agro ITV Road? Port? +RV
Normal / 1.0 0.5 No No +0
Capital C 1.0 1.25 No No +1
Road R 1.0 1.0 Yes No +0
Railroad T 1.0 1.5 Yes No +0
Port City P 0.8 1.5 No Yes +1
Silk Route S 1.0 1.0 No No +0
University U 1.0 0.75 No No +1
Sacred City H 1.2 0.75 No No +1
Road, Port  % 0.8 1.5 Yes Yes +1
Silk-Route, Sacred City  ! 1.2 1.0 No No +1
Sacred City, University * 1.2 0.75 No No +2
Capital, Road CR 1.0 1.25 Yes No +1
Capital, Port CP 0.8 1.5 No Yes +2
Capital, Road, Port C% 0.8 1.5 Yes Yes +2
Capital, Silk-Route, Sacred City C! 1.0 1.25 No No +2
Capital, Sacred City CH 1.2 1.25 No No +2
Sacred City, Road RH 1.2 1.0 Yes No +1
Sacred City, Port PH 1.0 1.5 No Yes +1
Sacred City, Road, Port  %H 1.2 1.5 Yes Yes +2
Sacred City, University, Road, Port +H 1.0 1.5 Yes Yes +3
Capital, Sacred City, Road, Port C%H 1.0 1.5 Yes Yes +2
Road, University RU 1.0 1.0 Yes No +1
Port City, University PU 0.8 1.5 No Yes +1
Silk Route, University SU 1.0 1.0 No No +1
Capital, Silk Route CS 1.0 1.25 No No +1
Port City, Silk Route PS 0.8 1.5 No Yes +1

City Resistance Value

Like a Region, a city has a Resistance value that is used for checking for Revolt and as a modifier to Diplomacy. This stat is not usually listed on the stat sheet, but it is calculated by this formula:


Where RV is the resulting Resistance Value, WP are the number of Wall Points possessed by the City, and GPv is the GP value of the city (its size). Fractions are dropped from the resulting number. And T is the City Type modifier from the City Types table.

See also City Garrisons.

Banking System

If your campaign has progressed to the point where there are national banks, yours will be listed here. The bank has the following attributes:

A Name (like The Bank of Geneva), a Status (Open or Closed, depending on whether you are allowing other nations to borrow from your bank), a Base Value (which is based on the economic strength of your nation), an amount Invested (by people paying off loans, and the interest adding to the banks’ capital), an amount Loaned Out (in outstanding loans), and the resulting Free Capacity (which is the amount which could be borrowed on the current turn). Finally, there is an Internal borrowing rate (which is the amount the owning Nation pays to borrow money from the bank), and an External borrowing rate (which is the amount other nations pay to borrow from your bank).

Only Open Nations have banks. Religious Primacies, Orders, and Secret Empires do not have banks but are free to lend their own monies.

Merchant Shipping Allocations

This section of the status report shows the home port cities for all of the nation’s merchant fleets, the number of Merchant Shipping Points (MSP) assigned to the fleet, the number of national ships in the fleet, and the shipping activity that they are currently engaged in.

This section is grouped by Port City, with each merchant fleet based at the port shown following lines, like so:

  • The Activity that the fleet is undertaking.
  • The number of MSP in the fleet.
  • The Trade route the fleet is assigned to. Internal Trade and Fishing fleets are assigned to Route 00000.
  • The Nation the fleet is sailing to, or (No One) if the fleet is an Internal Trade or Fishing Fleet.
  • The number and type of Units that compose the fleet are not listed except for warship escorts.
  • Any notes appertaining to the fleet, such as the Sea Zone being fished by a Fishing Fleet.

There is a sub-total line for each Port City, showing the total number of MSP based at the port, as well as (in square brackets) the Capacity of the port.

If more MSP are based at the port than allowed, an *OVER CAPACITY* note will be displayed. MSP from routes which are Over Capacity will be forcibly converted to ship units in the port.

Finally, at the bottom of the section there is a listing of the Total National MSP, and the total Nation MSP Capacity.

In some cases, you may be sharing status in the port with another nation, in which case the other Nation’s MSP total will be shown, along with an indicator of which Nation is also basing MSP at the port. You will not see, however, any details of their trade routes or shipping tasks.

Merchant fleets can be assigned to the following activities:

Sea Trade

For each nation that the player intends to trade with that can only be reached by sea, an External Sea Trade Fleet must be allocated to that duty. Only one fleet set on Sea Trade is required to sustain trade between two nations, and both nations may contribute MSP to the fleet. A sea trade fleet can traverse a number of sea zones determined by their nation’s Culture (see following table) from a port city in the originating nation to a port city in the target nation. Both ports cities must be able to trace a land route through controlled regions from that port city to their respective capitals.

Table 5-1. Sea Trade Range by Culture

Nation Culture Type Trade Range
Nomadic 1
Barbarian / Pre-Columbian 2
Civilized 3
Seafaring 4

Because of their superior navigation and ship handling skills Seafaring cultures are able to extend their effective Trade Range for a trade route by the use of a Trade Conduit. A Conduit consists of two controlled Port Cities (one the Capital, the other of at least Economic Ally status), connected by a number of known Sea Zones, Inter-Island or Open Ocean Arrows no greater than the Trade Range of 4. The ‘other’ city must then be within Trade Range of the port city of the target nation.

This extended range will prevent the trade partner from contributing MSP to the route unless they are of a Seafaring culture also able to trace a Trade Conduit, or have reached the Renaissance.

Internal Trade

Every 20 MSP set on Internal Trade functions as a 1 GPv port city for purposes of Revenue (producing City, Inter-City and International Trade Income).

If the base Port for an Internal Trade fleet is solely a River-port, then only Light-Transport-derived MSP can be allocated to it. See Ship Unit Classes and Effects.


This is a fleet that adds to the nation’s agricultural output by fishing in the sea zone adjacent to its base port. A Fishing Fleet of 20 MSP generates 1 Agro Point per turn, which, when combined with the land production, is then modified by the harvest for the Geographic Zone the Nation resides in.

A Fishing Fleet based at a blockaded port city will not produce any agro.

Port Capacity Limit

A port city cannot service, supply and warehouse an unlimited number of ships, crews and cargoes. There are physical limitations to the warehousing, the slips, the docking facilities, the number of longshoremen and other workers to support shipping. As a result, each port can only support a certain number of MSP assigned to it.

Note that the maximum number of MSP that a nation may base at a Port City is based on the degree of control (the Tax Multiple, see Table 2-7) that nation exerts over the city.

Nation’s MSP Limit = Port GPv × 20 × Tax Multiple

This capacity is calculated for each nation that exerts a level of control over a Port City. In addition each Port City has a total capacity (GPv × 20) that cannot be exceeded by all MSP based at the port.

Example: The nations of Egypt and Axum share control of a port city, Adulis, on the Red Sea. Each Nation has a status of T (tributary) in the city. Adulis has a GPv of 5. Neither Egypt nor Axum may base more than (5 × 20 × 0.5 = 50) MSP at Adulis.

Trade Routes

A Trade Route represents the merchant trade that can exist between two nations. This section keeps tally of all Trade Routes between your nation and its trading partners. Refer to Trade and Mercantile Activities for more details on the establishing and maintaining Trade Routes. Your Trade Route listing should only contain Trade Routes between your Nation and its trading partners. It is arranged like so:

  • Trade Route Number
  • Type of Trade Route
  • Name of the Nation you’re trading with
  • Status of the Trade Route
  • Route Distance (in Sea Zones)
  • Route Duration (in Years)
  • Your Nation’s eMSP (Effective Merchant Shipping Points) on the Route
  • The GP that the Route generates for your nation
  • The eMSP for the Nation that you’re trading with
  • The GP that the Nation that you’re trading with makes off of this Route
  • The port city in the other nation handling this trade route.
  • Route Total Trade Value (TTV)
  • Route "Free" Capacity (Free)

Trade Route Number

Each Trade Route between nations is assigned a number. This number is used by the players and the GM when Merchant Shipping Points are shifted between routes or other activity occurs.

Trading Nations

Your nation’s name, your trading partner’s nation name and the effective Merchant Shipping Points that each nation has on that particular trade route are listed after the Trade Route Number for each particular trade route.

Trade Route Type

The Trade Route Type merely lists whether the route traverses land only (including possible ferries) (“L”), or whether the route must traverse at least one sea zone (“S”). A pair of nations cannot trade with one another both by sea and by land. Land trade can be less profitable than a well established sea trade route (due to the greater possible efficiency of a sea trade route). Where two nations can trade by land, the route between them must be a land route, even if a sea route is also possible.

Trade Route Status

Each Trade Route has a status attached to it, as per the following table. Each status modifies the amount of trade that can flow through the route each turn.

Table 2-28. Trade Route Status

RouteStatus Description Throughput
NST Normal Sea Trade 1-100%
WAR Blocked by Warfare 10%
BST Blockaded Sea Trade 50%
LTH Land by Hostile Terrain 70%
LTD Land by Difficult Terrain 80%
LTO Land by Open Terrain 85%
LTR Land by Road 90%
LTS Land across the Sahara 50%
LTC Land along the Silk Route 30%
INI Trade Under Interdict 50%

The various Route Statuses’ are set by the GM as per their assessment of the kind of route and the terrain over which it must travel, in the case of land trade.

  • A Land by Open Terrain route is composed of a string of continuous cultivated or steppe land regions between the two capitals, with no ferry points used.
  • A Land Trade by Difficult Terrain route contains one or more wilderness or jungle regions, a type-one mountain range, or a ferry arrow.
  • A Land Trade by Dangerous Terrain route contains one or more desert or tundra regions, a type-two mountain range or a Hostile or Unsettled region.
  • A Blockaded Sea Trade Route is one that the Trade Route traced is Blockaded by a hostile fleet.
  • A Trade Route is Blocked by Warfare if the two nations that had been trading (and had established a route) are now at war with one another.
  • A Trade Route is Under Interdict if a nation is trading with a partner of the same religion which is under Interdict from a Primate Authority of the same religion.
  • A Trade Route can be operated via Land by Road if the majority (75% or more) of the cities in each nation are connected by Royal Roads and the two nations share a Royal Road network that connects both Capitals.
  • A Trade Route can be operated via Land Across The Sahara if you can trace a caravan route via Oases (controlled either by your Nation or that are Uncontrolled by any Nation) to a land region in the other Nation.
Example: The Empire of the Red Turbans controls the province of Songhai, which is also their capital of Timbuctu. They open a LTS route to the Caliphate of Tangiers, which controls the province of Zirid, by tracing a trade route through the oases of Arauane, Terhazza, Bir-el-Khazaim and Adrar. If any of those four oases should fall into the hands of the Senegalese (the Empire of the Blue Turbans) the route would be Closed.
  • A Trade Route can be operated via Land Along The Silk Route if a contiguous series of controlled land regions can be traced from the Capital of your nation to a Silk Route region (which you control), then via Silk Route regions (uncontrolled by any player, save yourself and the Nation that you are trading with) to a region that is controlled by the other Nation, and thence, by controlled land regions to their Capital.
Example: The Persian Empire has conquered provinces as far north as Kara-Khitai, which is a Silk Route region. From there, all of the Silk Route regions are independent to Yanzhi, which is controlled by the Pathet Lao. Persia and Lao could open a LTC route between themselves.

Routes may be closed by players. When this happens, the route ceases to generate Income for the nations, and the MSP and Trade Route Duration begins to decline. This trend will reverse once the route is opened.

Routes may also be closed when nations lose cities or regions, and the route can no longer be traced. Once trade is re-established (Either through another city, or regaining control of the old) the route will be reopened.

Trade Route Duration

Trade Route Duration is roughly the number of years that the route has been in operation. As time passes, the Duration increases. If a route is closed for some reason (by warfare, lost provinces, et cetera), the duration degrades.

The longer a trade route has been open, the more familiar the respective sets of merchants and governments are with each other's policies and markets. Mercantile concerns also have a chance to establish themselves and make contacts. All of this adds up to an increased flow of trade and more money on the route.

At the discretion of the GM, nations may be allowed to grant special trading privileges to certain other nations, increasing the Duration of a given trade route (useful for newly opened routes). At the same time, restrictions may be placed on other nations traders and merchants, reducing the Duration of trade on that route.

Merchant Shipping Points

A Merchant Shipping Point (MSP) is defined as 1 Cargo point of ships. A regular (or Medium) Transport unit is worth 3 Merchant Shipping Points. If your campaign is using Heavy or Light units, transports will be worth more or less MSP depending on their size.

In the case of external Sea Trade, these ship units can be provided by either or both of the two trading nations in question. Sea Trade starts if either or both trading nations send at least 1 full MSP on a possible Trade Route.

Undefined MSP cannot be built; they are only created by trade routes which are operating below their eMSP capacity, as described in Free Capacity. You can, however, transfer MSP from an existing route to a new one to open it.

Sea Zone Distance

The Sea Zone Distance is the minimum number of Sea Zones that a sea Trade Route crosses between the ports of the Trade Route. If a pair of nations are trading through a single Sea Zone, then this counts as a distance of one (1). Entry into the port on that Sea Zone is not added to the Sea Zone Distance.

Effective Merchant Shipping Points

The effective Merchant Shipping Points (eMSP) shows the relative transport capabilities of the MSP assigned to the trade route by each nation. The eMSP differs from the actual MSP assigned to the route according to the following equation.

Effective MSP = MSP × ( Trade Range / Sea Zone Distance)

In other words, the shorter the distance traversed by water, the greater the effectiveness of your assigned MSP. See Table 5-1 for the Trade Range of your nation.

Total Trade Volume

The Total Trade Volume (TTV) is the sum of yours and your trade partner’s International Trade Values (ITV). This figure represents the potential amount of trade (in eMSP) that could be carried between the two nations. This is also sometimes referred to as the capacity of the trade route.

Example: England and France are trading by sea through the English Channel. England has a trade value of 4.5, France a 9.2. The Trade Route is 1 Sea Zone in length. The capacity of this route is the sum of these Trade Values which is 13.7 (which rounds up to 14). Thus, 14 eMSP are needed to sustain full trade between these two nations on a given turn. Three transports assigned to the route will easily support all of the trade on the route, because 18 eMSP (6 MSP × ( 3 / 1 )) exceeds the routes TTV of 14.

Free Capacity

A route’s Free Capacity is the amount of eMSP still needed to reach Capacity on a given Trade Route. If this number is shown as a negative number, then this is the number of eMSP's that are allocated 'over' the capacity of the route.

Free Capacity = TTV - Your eMSP - Their eMSP

If a Sea Trade Route is not at capacity (the Free Capacity is a positive number), the Route will “fill up” with automatically generated Merchant Shipping as each nation’s merchants realize that an opportunity exists and attempt to take advantage of it. The number of “automatic” Merchant Points that appear on a route is equal to:

New Shipping =
Route Free Capacity ×
National Market Value ×
Proportion of Current Shipping on the Route

rounded to the nearest integer. This means that nations with a higher NMV and a greater proportion of allocated Merchant Shipping will more quickly fill underutilized trade routes with their shipping.

If the Free Capacity is positive, add more transports to the route. If the value is negative, the extra merchant shipping is not earning you any money. The proportion of shipping on the route is equal to (Current Shipping / Total Shipping on Route).

Example: A Sea Trade Route exists between England and Spain. The total Trade Capacity (sum of England and Spain’s Trade Values) is 35. England has allocated 20 Merchant Shipping Points (MSPs) and Spain 8 MSPs. The 'free capacity' of the route is (35 - 28 = +10). England has an NMV of 0.105 and Spain has an NMV of 0.08. During the turn in question the English merchant shipping allocation would grow by (10 × 0.105 × (20 / 28) = 0.75 rounded to 1) MSP. The Spanish, in turn, would gain (10 × 0.08 × (8 / 28) = 0.22 rounded to 0) MSP.

Monopolies, Tithes and Trade Cartels

This section is broken into three sub-sections (one each for Merchant House monopolies, Religious Primacy tithes, and Merchant House Cartel trade routes). For details about Monopolies and Cartel Trade, see the Modern Era Supplement.

The Religious Tithes section is used to show both the level of the Tithe your nation is paying (or receiving) to a Primacy and the current level of Influence the Primacy has in your nation. The gold received from tithes is included in the Primacy’s Saved Gold amount.


Projects cover a wide range – from the construction of religious monuments (or pyramids!) to the transformation of your entire national society. They are listed in this section, in order started. Each project is described by:

  1. The Id No., which is assigned when a new project is created, and used to identify the project in the system.
  2. The Level of the project (or its size), which ranges from 0.0 to 10 or more. The Project level defines its cost to build and to maintain.
  3. The Location of the project, if there is one. Some projects are “national” projects, covering an entire realm. These are indicated by a “?” for their location.
  4. The Status of a project can be “Started”, “Finished” or “Damaged”.
  5. The GP of an incomplete project will have two lines (Paid and Cost) to show how much a project will cost when done, and how much has been paid so far.
  6. Likewise, the NFP of an incomplete project will have two lines (Paid and Cost).
  7. And the Years of an incomplete project will have two lines (Paid and Cost). A Completed project will show only the Cost line.

Unit Build Chart

This chart gives you an idea just how much your troop units will cost you. This chart may or may not be attached to your status report. The GM has the option to generate it or not and may only do so when new units become available to you for builds or when the cost of units changes. This chart looks just like the Unit Construction Chart.

The Unit Construction Chart includes an Optional Unit Construction Chart. Some campaigns use these and other Custom Units to increase historicity and fun. Your GM will indicate any special units that are available in their campaign.

Nation History

This chart shows one entry for each turn your nation has surivived, showing you the Turn No., the Name of your nation that turn (which may change, as circumstances drive), your MSI (Military Strength Index), ESI (Economic Strength – how much money you made that turn), your TV (Trade Value), your Total Population and your Friendly Population.

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Lords of the Earth 6th Edition
© 2016 Thomas Harlan
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