Modern Age: The Order Form

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Contents

Expenses: Investments

The new Artillery QR is limited like the other Military Quality Ratings by the Tech Level of your Nation. The previous caps placed on QR advancement are also raised by the acquisition of new Tech Levels.

Table 3-1. Max. QRs per Culture and Tech Level

Civilized

Tech Level Cavalry Infantry Warship Siege Artillery
3 5 5 4 5 --
4 7 6 5 7 --
5 8 7 6 8 --
6 9 8 7 10 --
7 10 10 10 12 4

If a Civilized Tech 7 Nation purchases one or more Artillery units from a Renaissance nation they can then begin building Artillery units and investing in their own QR, which starts at one (1).

Seafaring

Tech Level Cavalry Infantry Warship Siege
1 0 3 4 2
2 1 4 6 4
3 3 5 6 5
4 5 6 7 7
5 6 7 8 8
6 7 8 9 10
7 8 10 12 12

Barbarian

Tech Level Cavalry Infantry Warship Siege
2 3 4 4 4
3 5 5 4 5
4 7 6 5 7

Nomadic

Tech Level Cavalry Infantry Warship Siege
2 5 3 2 2
3 7 4 3 3
4 9 5 4 5

Pre-Columbian

Tech Level Cavalry Infantry Warship Siege
1 0 (1) 3 2 2
2 0 (2) 4 4 4
3 0 (3) 5 4 5

Note: Cavalry is available to Pre-Columbian cultures only after the expiration of the Cavalry Count in that geographic area.

Renaissance

Tech Level Cavalry Infantry Warship Siege Artillery
8 11 12 12 15 6
9 11 14 15 17 9
10 12 15 17 20 11
11 13 16 20 23 13

Industrial One

Tech Level Cav Inf Naval Siege Art Mech Air Rocket
12 14 18 27 26 20 -- -- --
13 14 20 30 29 22 5 5 --
14 14 22 34 32 24 10 10 1
15 15 24 37 35 26 15 15 3

Industrial Two

Tech Level Cav Inf Naval Siege Art Mech Air Rocket Nuclear
16 15 26 40 38 30 20 25 6 2
17 15 28 42 41 32 25 30 9 4
18 15 30 46 44 35 30 35 12 6
19 15 32 48 47 40 35 40 15 8

Industrial Three

Tech Level Cav Inf Naval Siege Art Mech Air Rocket Nuclear
20 15 34 50 50 42 40 45 20 10
21 15 40 54 53 45 45 50 25 15
22 15 50 57 57 50 50 55 30 21

CONSTRUCTION: Building Armies

Fractional NFP

Sailing ships and Industrial Era airships and warships can now be manned with fractions of NFP to denote the relative sizes of crew needed by these vessels.

If a full unit of NFP is not used in the construction of ships or airships then the fractional amount can be saved to be used in the next turn.

New Unit Types

With widespread gunpowder use and the evolving science of gunnery, a new unit type is introduced. Artillery becomes available for purchase and deployment with the armies of your Nation. In field battles, Artillery units are governed by the Artillery QR. In sieges, by the Siege QR.

With the Industrial Era and the advent of steam and internal combustion power, Steamships, Airships, and Submarines, Motorized, Mechanized, Aircraft, Rocket and Nuclear units become available.

Artillery

The Artillery (g) unit represents from five to ten field pieces and their crews and support personnel, numbering about 200 men.

Artillery units have a new Artillery QR that ranges from one (1) to fifty (50). In normal combat Artillery units provide a bonus to the effective QR of the army, depending upon their QR and the number of them present.

Expenditure to raise the Artillery QR is handled just like the other Military QRs.

Note, however, that artillery cannot win battles by itself. There must be Infantry or Cavalry to carry the brunt of the fighting. Proportions of Field Artillery in excess of a third of an army will not be useful. Artillery units are not counted as elite.

Artillery in the Renaissance Period comes as Bombards (bg), Siege (sg) and Field (g). There is no inexperienced or elite artillery.

In the Industrial Period, Renaissance Artillery is effectively relegated to the status of light artillery. Technological developments produce Super Heavy (shg), Motorized (tfg) and (tsg) Artillery units. The advent of Airships and Aeroplanes also necessitates the use of artillery in an Anti-Aircraft role.

The optional R&D: Balloons project allows the use of hot-air balloons, which provide a bonus in field combat (for scouting and artillery spotting) and in siege (for being able to view over enemy walls).

Armored Fighting Vehicles and Motorized Units

Armored Fighting Vehicle (tank) units come in four types – Light Tanks (afx), Medium Tanks (afv), and Heavy Tanks (afh), and then the Industrial Two Battle Tank (afb).

Like Artillery, AFV units need to be supported by Infantry or Cavalry to screen their units, protect them when they’re refueling, etc. As a rough guide, you’ll want to field armies with a quarter-AFV, a quarter-Artillery and half Infantry proportions.

Infantry and Artillery variants of the base ‘leg’ formations are supplied by Motorized (ti) and Mechanized (mi) Infantry, and Motorized (tfg, tsg) Artillery respectively. Note that some of these artillery units are optional to a campaign.

The costs to develop AFV and Motorized/Mechanized units are given in the Research and Development section.

Steamships

Once a nation has reached Tech Level 11 and completed an R&D: Steamships project (with or without the help of another nation already possessing steamships), they may build Steamship Yards. Once at least one Shipyard point has been completed, they may begin building actual wooden steamship units (see the sections Building Factories & Yards and Research Projects).

Completion of the basic R&D: Steamships project gains the ability to build wooden steamship units. More advanced steamship unit types must be designed and developed by additional research. All steamship units, however, are built using the same Shipyard capacity points.

Types of Steamships

Several kinds of steamship units can be developed. The construction costs of these units are given in the Industrial Build Chart. There are no inexperienced or elite steamship units.

Each Steam Transport represents two ships, while Cruisers, Battleships, and Carriers represent one ship. Feel free to name, number and keep track of your capital ships.

Steamship Range

When a Steamship unit is moving, they move either via Sea Zones (where such are available) or via the hexes on the hexgrid overlay. They do not move via Inter-Ocean or Inter-Island Current Arrows.

Though capable of operating against the wind, or even in the absence thereof, steamships are restricted by requiring enormous amounts of fuel (wood or coal) to operate. They are also very fickle and require regular, skilled maintenance. Such supplies are acquired only through a fueling (or coaling) station provided by a controlled port (at Tributary or above).

Steamships operating without the support of a coaling station will suffer severe attrition (on the order of 25% per AP) as ships go down for lack of fuel or maintenance.

The operating range (as expressed in Action Points) of a steamship unit is equal to:

Operating Range = Tech Level - 10

The minimum operational range is 1 AP. The maximum operation range of a Steamship is 3 AP.

Example: The Danish Imperial Navy is operating a steamship squadron off the coast of India against Mussulman pirates. Denmark’s Tech Level is 12, giving them an operating range of (12-10 = 2 AP). Their nearest controlled port (for fueling and repairs) is at Mansura in Egypt. From Krak-de-Chevaliers in Mansura (Which is on the Nile), they can operate normally in seas as far away as the Red Sea (from Krak, 1 AP into the Nile, 1 AP into Red Sea). Beyond the Red Sea, they will suffer attrition. The acquisition of a port on the Bab-al-Mandab, then, would be of great strategic use.

Trade Ranges with Steamships

Nations having acquired the capacity to build Steam Transports may use them on their trade routes (as any transport may be converted into MSP), as long as the distance between each Anchor City on the trade route is equal to, or less than, twice the Steamship Operating Range of the nation.

Steam-powered merchant traffic must use the hexgrid ocean map overlay, if they are not moving through a Sea Zone, for tracing distances for trade routes and conduits.

Diesel-powered Ships

Once a nation has reached Tech Level 14 and completed an R&D: Improved Engines project (with or without the help of another nation already possessing diesel-engine ships), they may build Diesel-type versions of previously known Ship types.

Types of Diesel-Powered Ships

Several kinds of Improved Engine diesel-powered units can be developed. The construction costs of these units are given in the Industrial Build Chart. There are no inexperienced or elite diesel-engine ship units.

Each Diesel Transport unit represents two ships, while Cruisers, Battleships and Carriers represent one ship. Feel free to name, number and keep track of your capital ships.

Diesel Ship Operating Range

While, on a per-kilo-of-fuel basis, a Diesel-powered ship gets more kilometers of action range to the liter, they still require an extensive and technically-proficient support structure and vast quantities of fuel.

Diesel-powered ships operating without the support of a fueling station will suffer severe attrition (on the order of 25% per AP) as ships go down for lack of fuel or maintenance.

The operating range (as expressed in Action Points) of a steamship unit is equal to:

Operating Range = Tech Level / 3

This number is rounded up, with a minimum of 1 AP. The maximum operating range is 7 AP.

Example: The Imperial Aztec Navy is operating a diesel-powered cruiser squadron off the coast of Australia against Javan pirates. The Aztec Tech Level is 14, giving them an operating range of (14/3 = 5 AP). Their nearest controlled port (for fueling and repairs) is at Majuro on the Marshall Islands. From the Marshalls they can operate normally in waters as far away as the Coral Sea (from the Marshalls, 1 AP into hex 45K, 1 AP into hex 44K, 1 AP into hex 43L, 1 AP into Solomon Sea, and 1 AP into Coral Sea). Beyond the Coral Sea, they will suffer attrition. The acquisition of a port in Arukun or Papua, then, would be of great strategic use.

Trade Ranges with Diesel-powered Ships

Nations having acquired the capacity to build Improved Engine (Diesel) Transports may use them on their trade routes (as any transport may be converted into MSP), as long as the distance between each Anchor City on the trade route is equal to, or less than, twice the Diesel-ship Operating Range of the nation.

Improved Engine-powered merchant traffic may use the hexgrid ocean map overlay for tracing distances for trade routes and conduits.

Flying Machines

Flying Machines are rigid-airframe, winged aircraft with one or more fixed wings and gasoline- or kerosene- burning engines to drive propellers. Aeroplanes!

A variety of Aircraft units can be developed through Research & Development: Fighters, Bombers, Heavy Bombers, Cargo Transports, Carrier Fighters, and Carrier Bombers.

There are also three broad types of Aircraft: Biplanes, Monowings and Jets. This gives the following roster of unit types and codes:

Table 3-2. Flying Machine Unit Types

Type Biplane Monowing Jet
Fighter bf af jf
Bomber bib ab jb
Hvy Bomber -- ahb jhb
Transport bt at jt
Carrier Fighter bcf cvf jcf
Carrier Bomber bcb cvb jcb

Completion of the initial R&D: Flying Machines: Biplane research project gains the ability to construct Biplane Fighters, Biplane Bombers and Biplane Transports.

Subsequent R&D projects may develop the other kinds of aircraft units. All types of aircraft use Aircraft Factory capacity points for construction. There are no inexperienced or elite Aircraft units. See sections Construction: Factories & Yards and Research and Development.

Following the completion of the R&D: Biplane project your Nation can build Aircraft Factories, which will in turn allow you to build the various kinds of Aircraft units.

Airships (Optional Rule)

Airships (zeppelins) are large rigid-airframe flying machines, using hydrogen (or helium for those lucky enough to have helium gas deposits within their domain) for lift and kerosene-burning engines to drive propellers. Though of considerable size, they cannot carry as much as a sea-going ship, and demand considerable and specialized resources to build.

Four different kinds of Airship unit can be developed: Scout Airships (zs), “standard” Airships (z), Heavy Airships (zh) and Transport Airships (zt). Completion of the R&D: Airships research project gains the ability to construct Scout Airships and Airships.

Subsequent R&D projects may develop the other three kinds of airship. All types of airships use Airship Factory capacity points for construction. There are no inexperienced or elite Airship units. See sections Construction: Factories & Yards and Research and Development.

Note to GMs: the prevalence of airships as a major unit in most nations of Lords One is due to the peculiarities (some would say perversities) of that Campaign.

Aerial Combat Doctrine

In battle, you may direct your airship units to specifically engage opposing airships or aircraft, in which case a separate combat will be fought (before any ground, naval or siege engagements) to determine air superiority. If you do not so direct your air units, they will fight in conjunction with your ground and/or naval forces.

Aerial Bombardment

Airships with a Siege rating of one (1) or more may be directed to attack existing facilities (Airship Yards, Submarine Yards, Mercantile Industry, Shipyards) or projects (Railroad lines, Bridges, Pyramids, etc.). Damage is done in terms of GP/NFP/Time required to repair the damage, if the facility is not destroyed outright.

Specific locations may be defended against aerial bombardment by anti-aircraft artillery.

Submarines

Small, cramped, filled with bad air, choking fumes and cursed with absurdly short range, early submarines are more of a novelty than a strategic weapon. In time, however, they become one of the most feared weapons at sea…

Once a nation has completed the R&D: Internal Combustion Engine project, they may attempt to develop the Holland-like Submersible project to gain the ability to build one kind of unit, the Submersible (sub). This is a primitive petrol/electric vessel.

Once a nation has completed the R&D: Submersibles project they may attempt to develop the more advanced Submarine (ss) unit via the R&D: Submarines project. These are the classic diesel-electric boats that were so effective during the two World Wars. Those wanting nuclear powered behemoths are going to have to wait for higher tech levels.

Submarines are built using specialized Submarine Yards, which cannot be used for other kinds of units.

Rockets

Rockets are projectiles driven by the reaction of gases produced by a fast-acting fuel, either burning liquid or solid propellants, carrying an explosive warhead.

A variety of rockets will become available through the Research and Development: Single-Stage Rockets (ssr), Dual-Stage Rockets and later projects.

Completion of R&D: Rocketry: Single-Stage Rocket project gains the Rocketry QR. All long-range rockets are launched using the Rocketry QR, which governs whether they explode on the pad or in flight, or hit the intended target. There are no inexperienced or elite Rocket units.

Following the completion of the R&D: Rocketry project your Nation can build Rocket Factories, which will in turn allow you to build the various kinds of Rocket units.

Rocket Bombardment

A rocket unit is useless in battle or in a conventional siege. It is subject to a minimum and maximum range and can only be deployed against cities, fortresses or monolithic constructions within that range. Once in flight a rocket cannot be intercepted at Industrial One, and if successful will crash down onto its target inflicting damage in terms of GP/NFP/Time required to repair, if the location is not destroyed outright. If it carries a Nuclear weapon then the damage inflicted will be determined by the warhead and the Nuclear QR.

Nuclear Weapons

Nuclear weapons are a new and fearsome weapon, delivered to the target by another unit (ship, aircraft or rocket).

A variety of nuclear weapons will become available through the Research and Development, but at TL16 only the Atomic Bomb (nab) is available. All nuclear weapons use the Nuclear QR, which governs whether they detonate, and the level of devastation caused. There are no inexperienced or elite Nuclear units.

Following the completion of the R&D: Nuclear Theoretical Physics project your Nation can build Nuclear Production Factories, which will in turn allow you to develop and build the various kinds of Nuclear weapon.

Reserve Units (Optional)

Renaissance and Industrial nations gain the ability to build or place units in ‘reserve’ status, where they are not actively supported each turn by the nation. These units may, as the need arises, be called up and converted into active units of infantry, cavalry or whatever type they are. Only mobile national units may be placed in, or built in, reserve status. While these units are in reserve, no troop support is paid for them and they do not affect the national ISI.

Building Units as Reserves

Only Regular and Inexperienced units can be built as Reserve status units. Like normal national mobile units, they must be built at a Friendly city within the Homeland Build Zone. Since these units are built specifically as reserves, no troop support is paid on them the turn that they are built.

A Reserve unit costs the full cost of a regular unit in GP and Generic Industrial or Yard cost. It has no NFP cost.

Placing Existing Units into Reserve

Existing Regular and Inexperienced units that begin the turn at a controlled city anywhere in the Nation may be placed into ‘Reserve’ status at the whim of the player. Simply note on your orders that you desire to place some number of units from a given army into Reserve.

Units may not be placed into Reserve and activated from Reserve in the same turn.

Activating Reserves

Reserves can only be called up at the beginning of the turn, in any controlled unbesieged Friendly City or Fortress that is within the Homeland Build Zone of the country that placed them into Reserve. The Nation must pay an activation fee, as noted below, for each unit that is being called up.

The activation cost of a Reserve unit is 0.5 GP and the full NFP cost. No Industrial or Yard Cost is required to activate a unit from reserves.

Division of Reserves in the event of Civil War

On occasion a Nation may break into one or more successor states due to Dynastic Failure or Civil War. In this case, should the Nation have some troops in Reserve, the reserves are divided proportionally between the successor nations on the basis of how many originally friendly cities each successor state possesses. Fractions are rounded down, however, even if this results in the loss of units.

Example: The Maori Imperium controlled a wide swathe of the Pacific and Australasia before it dissolved into civil war and three successor states; Austral, Java and the Maori Seahold. Before the civil war, the Maori controlled fifteen friendly cities and they had 56 regular infantry, 20 regular artillery and 115 regular warships in reserve. Now, Austral has eight of those cities, Java three and the Seahold four. This gives the Austral a (8 ÷ 15 = 53%) share of the reserves, the Javanese a (3 ÷ 15 = 20%) share, and the Seahold a (4 ÷ 15 = 27%) share.

In terms of units the Austral get (56 × 0.53 = 29) regular infantry, (20 × 0.53 = 10) regular artillery and (115 × 0.53 = 60) regular warships in reserve. In the same manner the Javanese get 11 regular infantry, 4 regular artillery and 23 regular warships. The Maori Seahold gets 15 regular infantry, 5 regular artillery and 31 regular warships in reserve.

CONSTRUCTION: Colonies & Cities

In the Post Medieval Period the venue for establishing colonies is expanded to include, in addition to the traditional unsettled or depopulated areas, those regions occupied by peoples of substantially inferior technological development. Renaissance and Industrial nations can colonize, or settle, regions inhabited by Pre-Columbian, Nomadic or Barbarian peoples as if those regions were uninhabited.

In addition, Industrial nations can improve the Gold Point Value of cultivated regions and benefit from both higher maximum city size and increased Public Works limits.

Colonizing Inhabited Regions

Regions occupied by Pre-Columbian, Nomadic or Barbarian cultures can be settled by Renaissance and Industrial nations just as if those regions were colonizable (unsettled) regions.

This includes all uncontrolled Wilderness, Jungle, Desert and Steppe regions.

The Colonization of these inhabited regions can be accomplished by the expenditure of 50 GP and 25 NFP for each one (1) GPv of the region. Each allotment of 50 GP and 25 NFP converts one intrinsic GPv to the new culture. The GP and NFP may be expended over a period of time with each GPv conversion occurring when the requisite GP and NFP have been expended.

Each region can be settled in this manner up to the original value of the region. As each new GPv of settlers is completed, the equivalent GPv of ‘old’ population is destroyed or assimilated. Note that each time a GPv is settled, the region may rise up in revolt against the settlers and if not suppressed by friendly armies the settlement(s) may be wiped out.

If the Inhabited Region to be colonized is adjacent to a controlled land region, then the player may expend the requisite GP and NFP directly. If, however, the Inhabited Region is not adjacent to a controlled land region, then the GP and NFP must be moved to the Inhabited Region by a Leader (and fleet, if necessary) and deposited. This requires the use of the Colonize Inhabited Region Action – see the Basic Rules.

Improving Conquered Pre-Columbian Regions

Renaissance and Industrial nations may increase the GPv of conquered TL1-3 Pre-Columbian cultivated regions through the introduction of more efficient farming and ranching techniques. To this end, conquered Pre-Columbian Cultivated regions with a GPv of one (1) or two (2) may be increased by 1 GPv (to 2 and 3, respectively) by the expenditure of 50gp and 25nfp per region.

Pre-Columbian Cultivated regions with a GPv of 3 or 4 may not be increased.

Exception: Jungle regions that have become cultivated via a Megalithic Project may not be improved.

Improving Cultivated Regions

Industrial nations (Tech Level 12 and above) may enhance Cultivated (terrain type C) regions which are worth 1 GP (on the base map) by spending 50gp and 25nfp to increase them to 2 GP in value.

2 GP (base map) provinces may be increased to 3 GP provinces by the expenditure of 50gp and 25nfp.

3 and 4 GP provinces may not be improved. All other kinds of provinces (C2, W, etc.) may not be improved.

Urban Populations

Cities in Tech Level 12 (or greater) nations may be improved beyond the size limitations of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, as per the following table:

Table 3-3. Maximum City Size by Terrain

Region Terrain Maximum GPv
C2 20
C / I 15
W 10
M / J 8
S / D 6
T 5

Agricultural improvements in the kinds of plows, seed, sewers, medicine, threshing machinery, etc. also improve the amount of Public Works that can be built in a province or city:

Table 3-4. Maximum Public Works for TL 12

Region Terrain Maximum PWB
C2 GPv × 30
C GPv × 20
Other Terrains No Change
Cities GPv × 15

City Co-Builds

A Religious Order, Primacy, or Merchant House can add a complete GPv to an existing city (with the permission of the cities ‘regular’ owner) so long as the owner has a Control Status of Ally or above. This gains the co-builder an appropriate improved status in the city. This new status depends on the size of the city the GPv is being added to, and any pre-existing status the co-builder may have in the city. It is a good idea for the owner to demobilize the NFP of the old wall points to either rebuild new wall points around the expanded city or build something else; the co-builder can rebuild the Wall Points but would have to provide the NFP and GP themselves.

If the city owner has a Control Status of Economic Ally or below the imposition of the new immigrant population may spark riots and revolts. If the populace does not revolt then the city gains one GPv but loses its Wall Points which must be rebuilt from scratch using both the NFP and GP of the builder.

Table 3-5. City Build/Status Increase

Starting GPv Status Increase
1 +4
2 +3
3 +2
4 or more +1

Table 3-6. Pre-Existing Status Levels

Status Level MH PRA RO
0 None None None
1 MA CH OH
2 MF AB OO
3 BO MN OP
4 CI CA OE

So, to get the final status the co-builder has in the city, check the starting size of the City to find the amount of increase, then the Pre-Existing chart to see where you’re beginning.

Example: Adding a GPv to a 1 GPv city with no pre-existing status results in a 2 GPv city with CI/CA/OE status. Adding 1 GPv to a 9 GPv city containing a Church results in a 10 GPv city with a (1+1 = Level 2, or Abbey) status.

The co-builder must pay the full GP and NFP cost of the newly added GPv. The construction of this city GPv may be implemented as a Project (and undertaken over multiple turns), though the new GPv is not added (and the new status gained) until the entire cost is paid.

The city retains the owning Nations’ previous status. That is, if a Merchant House adds a GPv to a city held as Pacified by an Open Nation, the city remains Pacified to the Open Nation. A City Co-build cannot create a new city – this requires the standard City construction costs.

More caveats:

  • The co-builder must have permission from the owning nation to attempt the build.
  • The city must be of the co-builder’s religion.
  • The co-builder must deliver the NFP/GP to the location to effect the build. Usually this requires a Leader (and perhaps ships) to move from the co-builder’s Home Office/Holy City/Order Fortress. However, if the co-builder already has a status in the city and the city is within the co-builder’s Control Web, the city expansion can be implemented without having to move the NFP/GP to the city directly.
  • The co-builder’s construction attempt does not collide with the host nation’s own build attempt. Native city construction always, takes priority over any co-builds.
  • The city in question is within the co-builder’s Action Range of an existing Cathedral/Order Estate/CartelCity or the Holy City/Order Fortress/Home Office.
  • The maximum city size (as modified by terrain and the tech level of the lower tech co-builder) cannot be exceeded.
  • Only one city addition can occur in the turn. For instance: two Merchant Houses cannot each add a level in the same turn.
  • Co-builds only become possible from the Renaissance onwards.

CONSTRUCTION: Railroad Projects

Building Railroads

Renaissance and Industrial Nations (Tech Level 11 and above) can build a new type of National Project: the Railroad (RR). Like a Royal Road, a Railroad is built between the center of a province (though usually anchored to a city) and the center of an adjacent province. Like Royal Roads each RR segment (or level of capacity) is a Level One Project with a base cost of 50gp and 25nfp. Unlike other Projects, each RR segment also costs 10 City (generic) Industrial Capacity points.

A Railroad segment can only be built in a province containing a Friendly city that is within the HBZ, or from a province already containing a Railroad segment that is, in turn, connected to a Friendly city within the HBZ. A Railroad segment can have more than one level of capacity.

Railroads built in Desert or Steppe provinces cost an additional 50% over any other modifiers to the Megalithic Construction cost, due to the necessity to import lumber.

A contiguous controlled series of Railroad segments are called a “rail line”.

If a Railroad segment must cross a River, a (new) Bridge must be built specifically to carry the railroad. For purposes of keeping the GM from going insane, only one Bridge is required per river crossing, regardless of the number of Railroad levels between the two regions. See Base Rulebook Bridges for details. A railroad cannot cross a Ferry Point.

Moving Units by Rail

Each level of Railroad can carry 10 cargo points of units per turn in a single direction. This is the Rail Capacity of a rail line. Multiple levels of rail between provinces either allow more Cargo moved in one direction, or half as much in each direction. Entering or leaving a city by rail does not cost an additional Action Point.

Example: The RSA has built a rail line from their capital at Great Zimbabwe up to Iesuwayo in Mbundu. Each segment has 2 capacity levels (two tracks, essentially). This means the RSA could move (2 × 10 = 20 cargo) points of units from Great Zimbabwe to Iesuwayo in 1 AP, or 10 cargo in both directions at the same time.

An army (a Leader and one or more units) moving by rail may move the full length of the rail-line in 1 AP if the Cargo-size of the army is less than or equal to the rail line capacity. Larger cargo-requirement armies must be ‘shuttled’, which each additional block of capacity costing 1 AP per set.

If a rail line ‘contracts’ due to a segment being below the capacity of the others, extra AP will be spent to unload everyone, shuttle them forward on the lower capacity track, then load them up again. Very messy.

Example: The RSA Second Army needs to move up to Iesuwayo in preparation for loading onto an invasion fleet. The total cargo cost of the army is 160 points. With the aforementioned double-track rail line (with a one-way capacity of 20 cargo per AP), this would take (160 / 20 = 8 AP) to effect.

Rail Communications

Like a Royal Road, a railway enables swift and efficient communications between the capital of a nation and its attendant provinces and outlying regions. The Homeland Build Zone (and the King’s Command and Control Radius) is extended from the capital by a railroad.

The AP cost for HBZ or CCR to enter a region is quartered (multiplied by 0.25) when following a Railroad. Terrain effects (due to mountains, bad terrain, etc.) are still accounted in the cost of tracing the HBZ or CCR, but are quartered as well.

Railroads passing through Tse-Tse Fly regions negate the effects of said flies on CCR tracing.

Example: A Danish railroad passes through the city of Venice in northern Italy, the Imperial capital. As a result, the Danish HBZ (with a range of 4) may extend along the rail-line up to (4 × 4 = 16 AP) to the north or east.

Third-Party Railroad Projects

Merchant Houses of the proper Tech Level (11 and above), may embark upon Railroad construction projects for another ‘host’ nation. In this case the project appears on the Merchant Houses’ stat sheet during construction, then moves to the ‘host’ Nation’s upon completion.

The railroad may be constructed with national NFP (provided by the ‘host’ nation), Project Recruitment NFP (provided by the Merchant House), or a combination. National NFP provided in this way are not halved.

The GP to finance the project must be spent by the Merchant House directly (though of course they may be reimbursed by the ‘host’ Nation). The Merchant House must provide all of the Industrial Capacity used to build the Railway.

A Railroad construction Project must begin in a region containing a city capable of producing the Merchant Houses’ “generic” Industrial Capacity used to fuel the project.

Example: The Norsktrad merchant house secures a contract to build a railway in Persia, from Tehran to Ormuz in Bandar province. A mighty undertaking indeed! To begin, the Norsktrad will have to acquire Cartel City status in either Tehran or Ormuz, than build at least one Merchant Factory to begin providing “generic” Industrial Capacity. Once they have an operating Factory, they may begin railway construction.

CONSTRUCTION: Universal Weights and Measures

Industrial Nations may invest in the Universal Weights and Measures project (UW&M) to establish a standardized system of weights and measures throughout the nation. A nation that completes the UW&M Project will have compatible rail-lines, shipping containers, yogurt flavors, wheel and gear sizes, ammunition calibers, gun barrels, measures of distance, time, weight, mass and volume. In game terms this will be represented by a base Tax Rate increase of 10%.

The base cost of a UW&M Project is 100gp, 10nfp and 2 years. The base cost is multiplied by the Imperial Size of your Nation to get the final, Total Cost.

The cost of the UW&M project may not be defrayed through the use of Engineers or by Technical Assistance.

Example:: Ming China is Imperial Size 13. Implementing a Universal Weights and Measures Project would cost them (13 x 100gp, 13 x 10nfp and 13 x 2 years) 1,300gp, 130nfp and will take at least 26 years.

CONSTRUCTION: Factories & Yards

The construction of all Heavy-prefix, Artillery, Air, Steam, Diesel, Aircraft and Submarine units requires the use of (in addition to GP and NFP expenditures) Industrial Capacity of the appropriate kind. Each unit type has a IndustC (Industrial Capacity) cost listed on the Build Chart for your Nation. This is the Industrial Capacity cost when constructing the unit. In addition, some Yards and Projects have an Industrial Capacity Cost as well.

For most types of nations Factory and Industrial Capacity can only be used at a Friendly City within your Homeland Build Zone. Merchant Houses, however, can build Mercantile Industry Sites at any location they control at Cartel City (CI) status or better. These Sites provide the House with “generic” Industrial Capacity that can be used for building Heavy-prefix units and supporting National Projects.

Each point of Yard size (Air, Ship, Submarine, Aircraft, Rocket, Nuclear) provides one Yard Capacity point per turn.

A Dockyard permits the use of Port City Intrinsic Industrial Capacity for impressively large sailing ships and smaller Industrial Age vessels.

Industrial Capacity and Yard Capacity may not be saved from turn to turn. Units with a high Yard cost (like a Battlecruiser, for example) may, however, be built over the course of multiple turns.

Note the imposition of Industrial and Yard Costs upon all Nations, regardless of Tech Level. This means lower Tech nations (nomads, barbarians, Civilized, renaissance, etc.) are also bound by Industrial capacities for the construction of Heavy units. Luckily for them, cities and trade centers have an Intrinsic Industrial Capacity.

Intrinsic Industry

Cities, Trade Centers and Port Cities have “generic” Industrial Capacities, usually referred to as City Industry. City Industry Capacity is calculated using the following equation, rounded up:

Industrial Capacity =
(GPv + (pwb/15))
x CultureModifier
x TL
x EconomicModifier
x Tax Multiple

A Trade Center is treated as though it has a GPv of 5.

Table 3-7. Industry Culture Modifiers

Cultural Type Modifier
Pre-Columbian 0.75
Barbarian/Nomad 0.5
Seafarer 0.9
Civilized/Renaissance/Industrial 1.0

Table 3-8. Industry Economic Modifiers

Economic Type Modifier
Agrarian 0.5
Guild 0.75
Free 1.0
Slave 0.6

Note: Port City capacity is not separated for ground unit and ship unit construction. There is only one Capacity, reflecting the specialization of port cities for ship construction.

Note: From TL8 onwards certain types of Renaissance and Industrial warship require the construction of a Dockyard to permit the use of the Intrinsic Industrial Capacity of a Port City in the building of these units. See Building Factories & Yards.

Finding Industrial Capacities on the Stat Sheet

The city-based Intrinsic Industrial Capacity is listed on your stat sheet as part of the City description, between the City PWB and City Type like so:

Avalon [3+30i15p4]

This city has a GPv of 3, 30 Public Works, an Intrinsic Industrial Capacity of 15, is a Port City, and has 4 Wall Points.

Your Airship/Ship/Submarine/Aircraft Yard capacities are listed in two locations on your stat sheet. First, in the Controlled Region and City listing, beneath each City or Region where a Yard has been constructed, you will see an entry like this:

Airship Factory (City) (5.0), Finished: Project No. 00138

The number in parentheses indicates 5 points of Airship Yard capacity in this location. This same information is also shown in your Projects section (at the end of your stat sheet), like so:

00138 NAT Airship Factory (City) 5.0 Tenochtitlán Finished

Control of Intrinsic Industrial Capacity

The ‘native’ Industrial Capacity of a city is, by default, under the control of the Nation controlling the City with an ‘open’ status (Tributary, Pacified, Friendly, etc.). A Cultic, Order, Primacy or Merchant House status does not give access to the Industrial Capacity of a city. They do not own the generic industry in the city - they own what they build, but they do not get the rest for free.

If a Holy City, Order Fortress or Home Office resides in a Neutral city (one where no position has an open status) then they can use the Intrinsic Industrial Capacity for a flat fee of 1 GP per point of industrial capacity to hire the local workshops. They can only use yards and factories in the city that they have built (including Dockyards). If two or more resident organizations attempt to use the same capacity then they gain equal fractions.

Merchant Houses can build Mercantile Industry points in a city and those are under their direct control. The Nation that owns the Intrinsic Industrial Capacity of the city a Home Office resides in can rent the Intrinsic Industrial Capacity to the Merchant House, or allow them to use it in exchange for some other favor.

A Secret Empire can attempt to access unused capacity for a flat fee of 1 GP per point of industrial capacity to hire the local workshops - but they would have to hide, via intel, such an effort. Building a secret underground or hidden city somewhere would be much more effective. Alternatively, they could purchase Export Units from an open Nation, or Merchant House.

Building More Industrial Capacity

Additional Industrial Capacity (workshops, forges, foundries, workers) can be built by Renaissance and Industrial Nations (Tech Level 11 and above) at a city by paying 10 GP or 5 NFP per additional point of Capacity. This ‘extra’ capacity cannot exceed 2 × Intrinsic City Industrial Capacity, so at most you can double the Industrial Capacity.

Building Factories & Yards

There are eight kinds of factories and yards that can be built:

  • Dockyards
  • Airship Factories
  • Shipyards
  • Submarine Yards
  • Aircraft Factories
  • Rocket Factories
  • Nuclear Production Factories
  • Mercantile Industry

The first seven may only be used to construct units of the specified type (airship, submarine, etc). Most Factories and Yards (save Mercantile Industry) may be built at either a city or within a region, though the costs and maximum number(s) of Yard Capacity points vary by the kind of location.

There is no restriction to the number of Factory / Yard points which can be built in a turn, save the maximum capacity of the build location.

A Dockyard only permits the use of the Intrinsic Industrial Capacity for building certain types of ship; it does not add additional capacity.

A Dockyard is needed to utilize all or part of the Intrinsic Industrial Capacity of a Port City for building of certain types of ships. Dockyards cannot be built until TL8 is achieved. The Dockyard cannot be used to build units until the requisite Navigation rating or related R&D Project for the unit has been gained. A Dockyard counts as a Level 1 Monolithic Construction for Project Support costs.

Airship Factories cannot be built until an R&D: Airships project has been completed.

Shipyards cannot be built until an R&D: Steamships project has been completed.

Submarine Yards cannot be built until an R&D: Submersibles project has been completed.

Aircraft Factories cannot be built until an R&D: Flying Machines Biplane project has been completed.

Rocket Factories cannot be built until an R&D: Rocketry project has been completed.

Nuclear Production Factories cannot be built until an R&D:Nuclear: Theoretical Physics project has been completed.

The maximum number of Factory/Yard Capacity points which can be built in a region or city are as follows:

Table 3-9. Maximum Factory Construction

Location Max YC Notes
City GPv × 5 This total includes all Factories and Yards located at the city.
C/C2 region GPv This total includes all Factories and Yards located in the province. Shipyard and Submarine Yards may only be built in coastal provinces.
W/I/J region GPv / 2 This total includes all Factories and Yards located in the province. Shipyard and Submarine Yards may only be built in a coastal province.
Other terrains None

Note: Wilderness, Island or Jungle capacity is rounded down (so will be 0 for anything less than a 2 GP province).

Note: This total includes Mercantile Industry points added to the City.

Example: Sussex is a 3 GPv C province and contains London, a 10 GPv city. The rural areas could contain as many as 3 Airship Factories (or Shipyard/Submarine Yards), while the city could contain up to (10 × 5 = 50) Factories and Yards.

The cost of building a Factory or Yard varies by type and location, as per the following table:

Table 3-10. Factory/Yard Construction Costs

Type Location GPc NFPc Indust Cap. Cost Time
Dockyard Port City 50.0 25 5 5
Airship Factory City 25.0 5 1 2
Region 50.0 8 2 4
Shipyard Port City 50.0 5 2 2
Coastal Region 100.0 10 3 4
Submarine Yard Port City 30.0 5 2 2
Coastal Region 50.0 8 3 4
“Generic” or Mercantile Industry City 5 1 0 2
Aircraft Factory City 50 5 1 2
Region 75 8 2 4
Rocket Factory City 75 5 3 2
Region 100 8 3 4
Nuclear Production Factory City 100 5 5 2
Region 125 8 5 4
Hidden or Underground Appropriate Region (only) ×2 ×2 ×2 ×2

Note Homeland Build Zone restrictions continue to apply, even to units built at a Factory. See Base Rulebook section Homeland Build Zone Restrictions for more details.

Note Mercantile Industry sites can be staffed (built) using Project Recruitment NFP.

Factories and Yards appear on your stat sheet in the Projects section (and as the Project listing below the appropriate City or Region, where the listed Level is the capacity of the Factory or Yard).

Mercantile Industry

Mercantile Industry sites may only be constructed in Cities of Cartel City (CI) status or better. They act as “generic” Industrial Capacity points for all purposes, but are under the direct control of the Merchant House, not any Open Nation controlling the city.

Moving Factories

An Airship or Aircraft Factory or Mercantile Industry Site may be broken down, crated up and moved to a new location. While in transit the Factory does not produce any Capacity. Moving an Airship or Aircraft Factory point costs 10 GP (or 2 NFP). Moving a Mercantile Industry Factory point costs 5 GP (or 1 NFP).

The Factory must be moved to a controlled City (even if it was originally built in a region).

A Factory may move up to (HBZ Range) Action Points by regular land movement per turn, without requiring a Leader to move the facility. Note that using a Railroad to move your factory may allow you to move it a considerable distance.

Each Factory point requires 10 Cargo points to transport by rail or sea.

A Factory point may be moved by sea on a fleet, commanded by a Leader (mercenary or National). A Leader moving a Factory by sea may use his entire AP allowance (and is not limited by the HBZ AP limitation of land relocation).

Note! For a moved Factory to be useable, it must still be within the Homeland Build Zone after relocation.

Capturing a Factory or Yard

If you capture an enemy location (region or city) containing a Factory or Yard, one-half (rounded down) of the Factory or Yard points in the location are destroyed unless you capture the location by surprise .

If a captured factory, site or yard is then within the HBZ of the capturing nation and the region or city becomes Friendly to the capturing Nation, then those Capacity points may be used by the captor. Captured Airship Factories, Aircraft Factories or Mercantile Industry Sites may be moved as per section [3.6.6] above.

Exception: Nations with a Slave-based economy may use captured, non-Friendly, Factory and Yard capacity in locations within their HBZ, whether the region or city is friendly or not.

Attacking a Factory or Yard

A Factory or Yard in a location may also be attacked by airships or artillery barrage (from either heavy artillery or ships offshore). In this case, units attack with their Siege strength (and Siege QR), and the factories/yards have a passive Siege strength as per the following table:

Table 3-11. Factory/Yard Defense Strengths

Factory or Yard Type Siege Strength
Airship and Aircraft Factories, Rocket Factories, Nuclear Production Factories, Mercantile Industry 10
Shipyard or Submarine Yard 20
Dockyard 20
City “generic” Yard 15

Hidden and Underground Factories and Yards

Merchant Industry, Airship and Aircraft, Rocket, Nuclear Production Factories and Submarine Yards may be constructed as “hidden” or “underground” facilities for twice the cost of the equivalent Regional Yard. This makes them very expensive, but how else are you going to pay for those side-of-the-mountain clam-shell doors which swing open ponderously to let your newly-built airship majestically appear?

Dockyards and Shipyards cannot be built as “hidden” or “underground”, but you should feel free to build them in some out-of-the way location where no one will notice them.

Upgrading Airship Factories

Existing Airship Factories may be upgraded to Aircraft Factories the turn after the R&D: Flying Machines Biplane project is completed by the Nation in two ways:

  • Two (2) Airship Factories can be directly converted into one (1) Aircraft Factory.
  • One (1) Airship Factory can be converted (retooled) to one (1) Aircraft Factory at the cost of 25 GP and 1 NFP. This NFP cost may be provided by Project Recruitment. The GP cost of this conversion may not be provided by Engineers.

Upgrading Aircraft Factories

Existing Aircraft Factories may be upgraded to Rocket Factories the turn after the R&D: Rocketry project is completed by the Nation in two ways:

  • Two (2) Aircraft Factories can be directly converted into one (1) Rocket Factory.
  • One (1) Aircraft Factory can be converted (retooled) to one (1) Rocket Factory at the cost of 25 GP and 1 NFP. This NFP cost may be provided by Project Recruitment. The GP cost of this conversion may not be provided by Engineers.

CONSTRUCTION: Megalithic Construction Cost Modifiers

The Base Level cost of a given Megalithic Construction Project is modified by the terrain and the building nation’s Culture. If a Project straddles two regions, they take the cost of the more expensive terrain. Fractions are rounded off to the nearest half-level (0.5). Note that the Levels provided for Modern Age Canals, Tunnels and Mega-Bridges already include the relevant Terrain Multiple.

Table 3-12. Megalithic Construct Cost Multiples for Terrain

Terrain Type
Culture c2 c w m s d i j t
I2/I3 1.0 1.0 1.5 1.5 1.5 2.0 1.0 2.0 2.0
R/I1 1.0 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.0 2.0 3.0

CONSTRUCTION: Canals

With the onset of the Industrial Age mighty new works of civil engineering can be attempted.

Each canal also costs a number of City (generic) Industrial Capacity points.

Note that each Canal Project has a minimum Tech Level requirement.

Table 3-13. Canal Construction Levels

Level Tech Level Requirement Industrial Capacity Cost Description
2 (5) 11 15 Queta Canal Upgrade
6 12 10 Suez Canal
3 (6) 12 10 Panama Canal Upgrade
6 13 10 Volga Extension
3 13 5 Volga-Don Extension
2 12 5 White Sea Canal

Queta Canal Upgrade

To allow the passage of Heavy and Super-Heavy ships (see Unit Class and Effects) through the Queta Canal (across present day Nicaragua) it must be substantially upgraded to have deeper channels and wider locks. This is a level two (2) Megalithic Project, during which time the Canal is closed to all traffic.

If the Queta Canal has not been built prior to the start of this Project then building this canal is a level five (5) Megalithic Project.

Suez Canal

As the Necho’s Canal route cannot be upgraded to allow the passage of Heavy and Super-Heavy ships, the Suez Canal will have to be cut between Red Sea and Gulf of Cyprus. The newly built Suez Canal allows the transit of all Ship Units, see Unit Class and Effects.

This is level six (6) Megalithic Construct requiring the efforts of steam powered machinery and thousands of sweating fellaheen, but has the benefit of making Gulf of Cyprus and Red Sea adjacent sea zones (shortening all current trade routes through that junction by one, and not costing fleets an extra 1 AP to hook around through the Nile/Necho’s Canal seaway). A newly-built Suez Canal can carry all kinds of ship traffic.

Panama Canal Upgrade

To allow the passage of Heavy and Super-Heavy ships (see Unit Class and Effects) through the Panama Canal, it must be substantially upgraded to larger locks, deeper drafts in the channel bottoms and so on. This is a level three (3) Megalithic Project, during which time the Canal is closed to all traffic.

If the Panama Canal has not been built prior to the start of this Project then building this Industrial Age Canal is a level six (6) Megalithic Project, as machines and men labor in the malarial jungles.

Volga Extension

The building of this canal connecting the Volga River to Lake Lagoda and the Baltic requires considerable manpower. It is a level six (6) Megalithic Project.

Completion of this canal allows the passage of all classes of ship through the canal.

Volga-Don Canal

The building of this canal requires heavy engineering, including the construction of massive pumping stations to lift water from the Don River. The completed canal has nine one-chamber canal locks on the Volga slope, which raise ships 88m, and four canal locks of the same kind on the Don slope, which can lower ships 44m.

This is a level three (3) Megalithic Project.

Completion of this canal allows the passage of all classes of ship through the canal.

White Sea Canal

The building of this canal connects Lake Lagoda to the White Sea (via Lakes Onega and Vygozero). The completed canal includes a number of canals and only permits the transit of Medium, Light and Extra-Light class shipping.

This is a level two (2) Megalithic Project.

CONSTRUCTION: Mega-Bridges

The development of new materials and technologies allows the construction of massive suspension bridges. Many will carry traffic across ancient Ferry Points with the benefit that crossing the bridge requires the expenditure of only one (1) AP obviating the extra cost of moving across the Ferry. These bridges (at these Tech Levels) are not suitable for carrying railroads.

Each mega-bridge also costs a number of City (generic) Industrial Capacity points.

Note that each Mega-Bridge Project has a minimum Tech Level requirement.

Table 3-14. Mega-Bridge Construction Levels

Level Tech Level Requirement Industrial Capacity Cost Description
4 16 20 Bali Bridge (connecting Bali with Pajajaran).
2 15 10 Bosporus Bridge (connecting Thrace with Bithnia Europe/Asia Minor).
3 15 10 Copenhagen Bridge (connecting Denmark with Skane in northern Europe).
2 13 5 Gate Sea Bridge (connecting Pomo and Salinan in North America).
4 15 15 Hainan Bridge (connecting Hainan and Lingnan in China).
4 16 15 Hokkaido-Honshu Bridge (connecting Hokkaido and Akita in Japan).
4 15 15 Honshu-Shikoku Bridge (connecting Shimane and Shikoku in Japan).
4 16 20 Sicilian Bridge (connecting Sicily with Calabria in Italy).

CONSTRUCTION: Tunnels

With the Industrial Age great tunnels can now be bored through the earth and under the sea. These tunnels carry railroads and have the effect of any other rail line for the purposes of control, trade and travel.

If you wish your undersea tunnel to carry more than one rail line then you have to build more tunnels…

Each tunnel also costs a number of City (generic) Industrial Capacity points (this includes the normal generic industry cost for a railroad segment).

Note that each Tunnel Project has a minimum Tech Level requirement.

Table 3-15. Tunnel Construction Levels

Level Tech Level Requirement Industrial Capacity Cost Description
4 16 15 Bosporus Tunnel (connecting Thrace with Bithnia Europe/Asia Minor).
4 16 30 Channel Tunnel (connecting Sussex with Ponthieu).
3 15 20 Copenhagen Tunnel (connecting Denmark with Skane in northern Europe).
5 16 40 Gibraltar Tunnel (connecting Morocco with Andalusia).
4 16 25 Hokkaido-Honshu Tunnel (connecting Hokkaido and Akita in Japan).

CONSTRUCTION: Submarine Telegraph Lines

At TL13+ a Submarine Telegraph Line can be laid underwater connecting a pair of controlled port fortresses or cities unless the line connects two nations. Each port fortress or city is a ‘node’. A node can link any number of submarine telegraph lines and the network can allow redundancy to protect against any one line being cut, using either the 'same' or alternative routes.

Third-party Telegraph lines can be constructed by TL13+ Merchant Houses on behalf of nations that do not satisfy the Tech Level requirement as per third-part railroad construction (see the section Third-Party Railroad Projects).

The cable can stretch across a number of sea zones and open ocean hexes, where a sea zone requires one line point and an open ocean hex two. The maximum number of points between two nodes is:

Maximum Length = (TL-11) x 8

Where each eight points or part thereof constitute a Base Level One project. The project is not complete until sufficient points have been laid to connect the two nodes. In addition to NFP and GP costs each Submarine Telegraph Line between two nodes requires ten points of Industrial Capacity per eight line points. The route taken by the line must be specified. To lay a cable across open ocean hexes the nation must have completed the steamship project. The maximum number of open ocean hexes crossed by a line is also limited to double the maximum Range of the steam or diesel ships employed by the nation. By using nodes on islands considerable distances can be crossed.

A Submarine Telegraph Line can be cut by hostile action, but this requires the line to be located, requiring a successful Investigate in the target sea zone or open ocean hex and an Attack, both with negative bonuses being applied. It can also be cut by the capture or destruction of a node. To repair a damaged submarine line requires the entire line between two nodes to be reconstructed from scratch.

A Submarine Telegraph Line can be used for the following:

CONSTRUCTION: Airports and Spaceports

Airport

Base Level One

This is a new type of port available only to Merchant Houses.

An Airport may be built at any city where the Merchant House has an ordinary status at Tributary or above; or a Branch Office or above as a Project. An Airport allows the Merchant House to base aerial MSP at the location. If the city is a Port city then the aerial MSP counts towards the total MSP based there. If the city is not a Port, then an Airport allows aerial MSP to be based inland.

The Project costs cover the building of the airport terminal, beacons, hangars, mooring masts for airships or runways for aeroplanes. It allows the Merchant House to gain more revenue by earning money from aerial trade routes.

Spaceport

Base Level Two

A Spaceport can only be built once the R&D Project: Rocketry: Dual-Stage Rocket has been completed. A Spaceport can be built at a city, fortress or in a region.

It represents the infrastructure required to launch larger rockets, consisting of command posts, fabrication buildings, fuel dumps, training facilities, launch pads, and gantries. If the Spaceport is not co-located with the necessary Rocket Factories then the rockets must be transported to the site either by rail or by ship.

Air Raid Shelters

Base Level One

Air Raid shelters provide some protection for a population against conventional strategic bombing (including rocket bombardment), and limited protection against nuclear attack.

They can only be built in Cities and Fortresses.

CONSTRUCTION: Optional Megalithic Constructs

Additional optional Megalithic Constructs are defined – but first ask your GM if they are in use in their campaign: Optional Rules: National Projects

National Transformation

Human society and political institutions are mutable. With the advent of the Modern Era new transformations in Government, Society and Economics become possible. See the Basic Rulebook for the full costs per Level in GP, NFP and time to complete.

Changing Government Types

To change a government from one type to another can be as easy as declaring the change, even though it may incur internal rebellions and strife. For each of the possible changes listed below, there are certain conditions that must be met in every case before the change can occur. In all cases, every condition must be met to accomplish the transformation.

From Centralized Monarchy…

To… Dictatorship

Level None

TL Required Tech Level 8 or better.

Conditions After suffering a DF and/or Civil War caused by religious, cultural, ethnic, social, or economic causes.

From Constitutional Monarchy…

To… Federalized Democracy

Level 2 (or see below)

TL Required Tech Level 10 or better.

Conditions A Constitutional Monarchy may evolve into a Federalized Democracy if the ConMon exceeds its BL and INFRA maximums. If the process is forced (by undertaking a Transformation project) a Civil War check will be made when the project is complete.

From Dictatorship…

To… Constitutional Monarchy

Level 1.5

TL Required Tech Level 8 or better.

Conditions A Dynastic Failure check when all the expenditures have been completed. Note that if a DF occurs it is an automatic Civil War with the parliamentarians against the old regime’s corrupt supporters.

From Federalized Democracy

To… Imperial or Dictatorship

Level None.

TL Required Any.

Conditions If the nation suffers a Civil War and the King (President) assumes direct authority over the nation. (Alternatively, the GM could decide the new government is a Dictatorship)

To… Oligarchy

Level None.

TL Required Any.

Conditions If a Federalized Democracy suffers an economic collapse (due to bank failures or excessive over-taxation) an Oligarchy may result. A Civil War won by the nongovernmental faction(s) may produce an Oligarchy.

From Imperial…

To… Dictatorship

Level None

TL Required Tech Level 8 or better.

Conditions A Dynastic Failure or Civil War may spawn a Dictatorship if the Leader of the faction has a Charisma of 8 or better.

To… Constitutional Monarchy

Level None or 2.

TL Required Tech Level 8 or better.

Conditions If the nation had once been either a Constitutional Monarchy or a Democracy and a Dynastic Failure or Civil War occurs; then one of the factions may be forced to adopt a Constitutional Monarchy to form a new regime or a successor state. Likewise, a nation with a tradition of democratic representation may attempt to move from Imperial to Const. Monarchy, but only if the current level of Government (BL and Infra) would be supported by a Const. Monarchy. Completion of the project then instigates a Civil War check.

From an Oligarchy…

To… Federalized Democracy

Level 2 (tradition of democratic rule), 3 (no tradition of democratic rule).

TL Required Tech Level 10 or better.

Conditions Attempting to establish a Federalized Democracy from an Oligarchy will inspire Civil War checks upon starting the project and upon completion.

Changing Society Type

The Modern Era permits an additional change in Society Type.

From Clan…

To… Open

Level 2

TL Required Tech Level 8 or better.

Notes Clan societies attempting to become Open will be afflicted with a Civil War check at the completion of the transform project.

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Lords of the Earth, 6th Edition © 2010 Thomas Harlan
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