Leaders and Army Actions

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Combat in the Modern Era

The Renaissance introduces artillery to warfare on land and sea; the Industrial Era introduces new technologies harnessing steam power and the internal combustion engine together with the application and exploitation of new designs, materials and capabilities.

The new Modern Era Quality Ratings cover the broad types of war-fighting applications: Artillery, Aircraft, Mechanized, Rocket and Nuclear. The Warship QR is replaced by the Naval QR to cover both surface and subsurface capabilities.

Whilst a QR provides a measure of the level of the quality of your military, within these QR classes Research & Development provides major advances in engineering, design and manufacture. These not only lead to significant new means of waging war (such as torpedoes or aircraft) but major steps in offensive and defensive capability. For instance, an Ironclad warship will routinely defeat Ships of the Line because of its maneuverability, the caliber and range of its guns, its armor and its structural strength; a Pre-modern warship will routinely defeat an Ironclad.

From TL14 on, Industrial Age city sieges and assaults are particularly devastating.

The Industrial Age enhances or adds new capabilities:

  • Scouting. Previously an attribute only of light cavalry, in the Modern Age aviation, fast boats and helicopters can all perform scouting. In combat, the force with the greater number of scouting points enjoys tactical initiative.
  • Ranged. Artillery improves until gunnery ranges exceed previous combat ranges. Ranged weapons have the ability to strike the enemy at long-distance.
  • Armor. Ships and mechanized vehicles can carry armor and are designed to withstand damage to counter the increasing firepower of artillery, torpedoes and bombs.
  • Torpedoes. An R&D Project introduces the ability for some surface vessels and submarines to perform a torpedo attack; if successful they will inflict serious damage upon enemy capital ships. Smaller vessels can attempt to screen these high value units.

These factors will have an impact in combat on land, at sea and in the air.

Revised Action Capacities

Just like nations during the Middle Ages period, the various kinds of Nations in the Post Medieval period have base Action capacities, based on their culture type. An exception to this are Warship and Transport units, which now calculate their Base Actions per Year from the Navigation Rating of their Nation. Note that the previous (24-impulse) Action Chart has been replaced by new 48-impulse and 60AP Action Charts.

Table 5-1. Months Per Year Available For Actions

Culture # of Months
Civilized 6
Seafaring 7
Barbarian 8
Nomadic 8
Pre-Columbian 5
Renaissance Land Units 8
Renaissance Ships See build chart
Industrial One non-Steam Ships See build chart
Industrial One Steamships See build chart
Industrial One Land Units 9
Industrial Two Land Units 10

Table 5-2. Unit Type Modifiers

Unit Type Modifier
Leader +2
Cavalry +1
Infantry +0
Siege +0
Artillery -1
Tribe Points -1

Table 5-3. Equipment Type Modifiers

Equipment Modifier
Heavy -1
Medium +0
Light +1

Table 5-4. Unit Training Modifiers

Training Modifier
Elite +1
Regular +0
Inexperienced -1

Table 5-5. Leader Combat Rating Modifiers

Combat Leadership Modifier
1 – 4 -1
5 – 8 +0
9 – 11 +1

The Unit Training Modifier does not apply to Leaders moving by themselves. If, however, they are moving with a unit type that has a greater Action capacity than they do they acquire the Action capacity of the unit only while they act in tandem with it.

The modifiers for Equipment and Training apply to ship units, as well as land units.

The Leader’s Combat rating does not affect his own Action capability, but that of land units he is commanding instead. If he is commanding ships then his Combat Rating may boost the Action Capacity of the ships and thence his own capabilities. Kind of makes the head spin, don’t it?

Example: Lord Captain Jehanli Drake, commanding the Marôcain pirate fleet in the Caribbean, is a L97A Leader and he commands a fleet of twelve 1st Rank Ships of the Line. The Marôcain Navigation rating is currently two (2). Drake’s fleet gets 18 AP base (for those first-raters), plus two for the Navigation rating, plus one for Drake being a swell guy, = 21 actions per year. Quite enough to raise the very devil on the coast of Azteca and fill the Marôcain coffers with heavy red gold and their decks with coffles of slaves...

Table 5-6. Regional Terrain Action Modifiers

Regional Terrain Type
Culture Type c/c2/i w m d/s t j
Civilized +0 +1 +2 +1 +2 +2
Seafaring +0 +1 +2 +2 +2 +2
Barbarian +0 +0 +1 +1 +1 +1
Nomadic +0 +1 +2 +0 +2 +2
pre-Columbian +0 +0 +1 +1 +1 +0
Renaissance +0 +0 +1 +1 +2 +1
Industrial 1/2 +0 +0 +1 +1 +2 +1

Modified Action Codes

The following actions are modified in the Modern Era.

Amphibious Assault

Code APH

BAC 1 per Combat Roll

Stat Combat

Results An Amphibious Assault is used by an army debarking from a fleet into an uncontrolled region. This cost and combat rolls are required before the AP cost to actually enter the region itself. One combat roll is made against the sea and one against any opposing forces. A failed combat roll (even if unopposed!) forces the army to return to the fleet and the fleet to return to the nearest controlled port. If the region is defended by Field Forts there is an additional +1 AP cost to the initial attack order. If the attacker fails to make land or is driven from the beaches back into the sea, losses in men and equipment can be severe. A failed Amphibious Assault results in the fleet attempting to return to the nearest friendly port.

As an optional rule, in the Modern Era warships (Ironclads and better) can provide covering fire to the landing forces when they hit the beaches in the second Combat roll.

If the entire force is being landed from Amphibious Assault Ships this reduces the AP required to land troops, vehicles and artillery to one AP regardless of the availability of port facilities. It also provides a bonus to the first round of combat to get the troops ashore.

Blockade Port

Code B

BAC All

Stat Combat

Results The Blockade action is used by a fleet against a Port City, a port Fortress, a regional section of coastline or a river mouth. The fleet must be performing this action for the entire turn or until any supported siege is resolved.

A Blockade must be enforced by warships based at a port city or fortress no less than N seazones from the target Port City or coastline, where N is the Navigation Rating of the Blockader in the Modern Era. If N = 1 then this is the same seazone as the target port city or region. (Note that steam and diesel powered ships are also subject to their normal operating range.)

The number of warship units required to enforce the blockade is equal to the GPv of the Port City and twice the GPv for a region, and half of the combined GPv of the two coastal regions either side for a river mouth. A Port Area or a standalone Port Fortress counts as a 1GPv city for the purposes of blockade. At the end of the turn the blockading warships automatically return to their base port.

The blockade may be broken by a war fleet (and/or Super Heavy Artillery) on Defend or React based at the Port City or Fortress (or a war fleet based at the Port Fortress in the region being blockaded) attempting to break out, or a war fleet attempting to break in. The blockading fleet will fight with only 75% of its strength, emulating the rotation of ships on and off the blockade during the course of a year.

When successfully used against a City, it prevents any Inter-National or Inter-City trade from being traced by sea from that City. In conjunction with a Siege it closes the City or Fortress off, allowing the possibility of a Starvation "attack" to be used on a Port City. A coastline or river mouth that is Blockaded is similarly closed off. No International Trade or Inter-City Trade can be traced through such a coastline or river.

Explore

Code EX

BAC 3+ AP

Stat Charisma

Results The Explore action is used by a Leader and (optionally) some ship units to attempt to chart the currents, reefs, shoals and waterways of a given:

  • Unknown or Hostile Sea Zone
  • Inter-Island Arrow
  • Open Ocean Arrow
  • Ocean Hex
  • River Section

Dependent on the wit of the Leader (as represented by his Charisma rating) and the current Navigation Rating of the nation in question, the fleet may accrue Mapping points.

Each Sea Zone, Inter-Island Arrow, Open Ocean Arrow, Ocean Hex and River Section has a Mapping requirement that varies between one (1) and fifteen (15). Each successful Explore action attempt gains 1 Mapping point. When the requirement has been satisfied, the Sea Zone is considered ‘known’ to that nation. Other nations must still map it, if they are to gain ‘known’ status.

Once charted, ships in the possession of these charts (historically called ‘ruttiers’) can navigate across explored Sea Zones, Rivers and Arrows without undue risk. However, Hostile Sea Zones still cost the same number of Action Points to cross (there’s just less chance of the units being lost in doing so). Open Ocean Arrows are relatively easy to explore, while Hostile Sea Zones will still be difficult to map successfully. Regardless of whether the action succeeds or fails, some of the ships may be lost due to storms, wrecks and / or mutinies. When assessing losses, a Leader counts as one ship unit. If there is more than one ship unit present then the Leader will be taken last in assessing losses.

An exploring open-nation Leader is still within the Command Control Radius if it can be traced from the capital to their location, even if only by one-way arrows. Primacy, Religious Order, Secret Empire and Merchant House leaders can leave the Control Web without penalty. However, if any exploring leader creates a control status not traceable via the CCR/ effective Control Web then they are liable to revolt.

Secretive exploration can be performed utilizing Evade (or Secret Movement if the Leader is exploring on their own) doubling the AP cost for Explore.

Modify Troops (Optional)

Code MT

BAC 8 Leader Actions

Stat Charisma

Results This action a llows a nation to change the composition of a given mobile land unit (Cavalry, Infantry, Siege Engineers, Artillery, Motorized, Mechanized) to another mobile land unit type, class (Light, Medium, Heavy) and training level (Inexperienced, Regular, Elite), but only where the new unit is available in the Culture Build Chart (see Section 8.6). Any excess cost difference in GP, NFP and/or Industrial Capacity must be paid for by the nation in full - note that building Parachute and Airmobile Infantry also requires the use of Aircraft Factories. Units may also be modified to a cheaper version, but no refund is given. Units must be modified on a one-to-one basis.

Ships, Submarines, Wall Points, Field Forts, Airships, Aircraft, Rockets and Nuclear Weapons cannot be modified by this Action and must be disbanded and rebuilt (requiring the use of the relevant Yard and Factory Capacity). Parachute and Airmobile Infantry can be modified by this action.

This action must take place in a Friendly city within the Homeland Build Zone and must be executed by a national leader (King, Heir, Prince, or Lieutenant). Full Allies and Feudal Allies may upgrade their own troops as well, but only if they have a Friendly city in their allied region. The Ally must be the one undertaking the action, but may be supported by other national leaders.

Units undergoing MT that are attacked during the process fight as units of their previous type; the action is aborted and must be attempted again. Resources attributed to the aborted action are returned (GP and NFP only; Industrial Capacity, Yard and Factory Capacity cannot be carried over from one turn to the next).

Example: The Industrial Two Duchy of Saxony, after withstanding the siege of Berlin, seeks to take the fight to her enemy. Twenty Siege Engineers (20s) are modified to Twenty Airmobile Infantry (20ami). The Engineers originally cost Saxony 80 GP, 20 NFP and 40 Industrial Capacity. The new helicopters cost a total of 300 GP, 40 NFP, 60 Industrial Capacity and 40 Aircraft Factories. Saxony must pay the difference of 220 GP, 20 NFP, 20 Industrial Capacity and 40 Aircraft Factories during the action.


Reaction

Code R

BAC Land: 2+, Sea: 4+

Stat Combat

Results In Industrial One and Industrial Two, Naval Reaction is still limited to the sea zone or zones adjacent to the base port (or the Open Ocean Hex if the fleet is based on an island port). Naval Reaction becomes more effective with the enhanced Scouting Factor (representing shipboard aviation) and if ships are equipped with radio and radar.

New Action Codes

The following action is available only to Renaissance culture Nations.

Nationalize Monopoly

Code NM

BAC 6 King AP

Stat Diplomacy

Results The Nationalize Monopoly action is used by a Nation when it has had quite enough of the leeching effects of a Mercantile Combine monopoly on its Trade Revenue. It requires the King to spend about a year of time kicking all of the toadying minions of the Combine out of the country and attempting to restore normal economic relations within his nation. Unfortunately the usual result of such an action is to depress the economy and ruin whatever industry or resource the Combine was exploiting — reducing the Tax Rate…

Army, Aircraft, Naval, Rocketry and Nuclear Operations

The completion of the Admiralty Project provides the Nation with one Naval Operations point. Like Intel and Religious Operations the Nation can invest in this AQR as in any other to gain additional Nav Ops up to the value of their Tech Level. Until the Submersibles Project is completed only Surface Operations can be performed. Once Submersibles can be built the Naval Ops can be used for Sub Operations as well.

The completion of the General Staff Project provides the Nation with one Army Operations point. The Nation can invest in this AQR as in any other to gain additional Army Ops up to their Tech Level.

The completion of the Air Command Project provides the Nation with one Aircraft Operations point. The Nation can invest in this AQR as in any other to gain additional Air Ops up to the Tech Level.

Table 5-7. Operation Leader Types

Type Description
N Admiralty - Naval Ops Leader
W Wing Commander - Air Ops Leader
G General Staff - Army Ops Leader

Each Operations point generates a special type of Combat Leader. These Leaders possess only Combat and Charisma stats in the range 1-8 and cannot be used for any tasks other than the relevant Operations. A General Staff Leader cannot be used for Aircraft Ops or vice versa with the exception that an Admiralty Leader commanding a fleet including airship or aircraft carriers can use their air assets for fleet-based operations.T hese Operation Leaders do not count towards the total of National Leaders.

A Combat Leader should be given a designation, for instance Army Group West, North Sea Fleet or 1st Air Wing or a name, and based in a particular location. These Combat Leaders will age and die like any other Leader.

An Army or Air Combat Leader can command rocket units and perform rocket operations.

A Combat Leader can optionally be promoted to full Leader status on the turn that a new national Lieutenant is generated by a BL increase, in place of that new Lieutenant. However, during that turn they cannot fight or engage in any missions whilst they travel to the Homeland, and the new Lieutenant they replace cannot be used in any way.

Army Operations

An Army Operations Combat Leader allows a group of land based units at a given Army Base to perform an Army Mission during the turn, without the intervention or assistance of a standard Leader.

A regular Leader, however, may take direct control of the units (attaching them to his army) and conduct Leader missions as well.

A Nation’s land based units at a specific Base are called an ‘Army’. An Army may undertake multiple missions during a turn, as resources (Combat Leader or Leaders) allow.

An army (composed of infantry, artillery, cavalry, engineers, and motorized and mechanized units) employs the lowest Operations Range of any asset within the Army.

Army units tasked to an Action via an Army Operations Combat Leader can only conduct one (1) mission per turn. Land based units being commanded by a Leader, however, can conduct as many missions in a turn as the Leader has AP to pay for.

Army Bases

Armies have to operate from a base and can only engage in Actions (missions) within their Operations Range of the base.

Armies can be based at an unbesieged, unblockaded City or Fortress controlled at Tributary or better, which is able to trace a Line of Communication back to the national Capital.

Armies at an isolated City or Fortress cannot undertake any Army Operations (with or without a Leader).

The operational Range of a given Army is determined by the following table.

Table 5-8. Army Operations Ranges

Tech Infantry and Engineers Cavalry Artillery Motorized And Mechanized
12 3 4 3 5
13 4 5 4 6
14 4 5 4 7
15 4 5 4 7
16 4 5 4 9

Each Operations Range point equals one Action Point; modified by normal movement costs.

Motorized and Mechanized includes Motorized and Mechanized infantry, engineers and artillery, and tanks have a Range of one (1).

Army Missions

The following missions can be attempted by Army units being commanded by a General Staff Leader.

Army Rebasing (ARB)

Rebasing Armies can relocate to another Base (which must meet the Base criteria listed above) by moving up to twice their Operations Range in AP, subject to normal movement costs.

Army Defend Base (ADB)

The Defend action will keep an Army alert and prepared for an attack (even if it doesn’t occur). An army that is using the Defend action will receive a favorable modifier in combat if it is attacked. This is the default condition of any Army Op.

Army Defend Region, Prepared (ADP)

The Army will defend the Region where its base is situated. The Defend action will keep an Army alert and prepared for an attack (even if it doesn’t occur). An army that is using the Defend action will receive a favorable modifier in combat if it is attacked.

If there are Siege Engineer units with the army, then the defending force gets an additional positive modifier in any combat.

Army Defend Region, Directed (ADD)

The Army will defend the Region where its base is situated from attack against the specified border.

If the army elects to defend against an attack from a specific regional border, they receive a further bonus against attacks coming from that specific direction. This is a directed defense. Attacks entering the province from any other direction obviate any Defense bonus.

Staff Officer – React (ASR)

A single Army Op is tasked to support a regular Leader on React, increasing the Army’s React Range by one AP. No more than one Army Op can be effective in supporting a Leader on React.

Staff Officer – Assistance (ASA)

A single Army Op is tasked to support a regular Leader for the duration of the turn, moving with them, increasing that Leader’s Combat Rating by one (1). In the event of the Leader’s death the Staff Officer will take over their command, in the absence of another Leader to complete any outstanding Actions – but only those utilizing the Combat Rating; any Diplomacy- or Charisma-based actions will not be performed. The Army will end the turn at a suitable Army Base.

Naval - Surface Operations

Surface units can attempt Actions either by being commanded by a Leader, or through the use of an Admiralty Leader provided by a Naval Operations point.

Ships under the control of a Leader act as regular Fleet units.

Surface Missions (actions) implemented through the use of a Naval Operations point are performed using the Combat rating of the Admiralty Leader, with the exception of Explore, which uses Charisma.

Surface units tasked to an Action via a Naval Operations point can only conduct one (1) mission per turn. Ships being commanded by a Leader, however, can conduct as many missions in a turn as the Leader has AP to pay for.

A Nation’s ship units at a specific Base are called a Fleet.

A Fleet composed of surface and/or submarine units employs the lowest Operations Range of any asset within the Fleet. If the surface fleet consists of a mixture of technology levels (Sailing Ships/Steamship/Ironclad/Pre-modern /Modern employs the lowest Operations Range of any asset within the Fleet.

Fleet Bases

Fleets have to operate from a base and can only engage in Actions (missions) within their Operations Range of the base.

Fleets can be based at an unbesieged, unblockaded Port City or Port Fortress controlled at Tributary or better, which is able to trace a Line of Communication back to the national capital. Fleets at an isolated Port City or Port Fortress cannot undertake any Naval Operations (with or without a Leader) with the exception of Exploration.

The Operational Range of a given Fleet comprised of Surface units is determined by the following table.

Table 5-9. Warship Operations Ranges

Tech Sailing Ships Steam Ships, Ironclads and Pre-modern Modern
9 3 + Nav
10 4 + Nav
11 4 + Nav 1
12 4 + Nav 2
13 4 + Nav 3
14 4 + Nav 3 6
15 4 + Nav 3 9
16 4 + Nav 3 12

Each Operations Range point equals one Sea Zone or Hex. Sailing ships cannot enter Sea Hexes.

Surface Missions

The following missions can be attempted by Surface units being deployed by a Naval Operations Combat Leader.

Rebasing (WRB)

Rebasing Fleets can relocate to another Base (which must meet the Base criteria listed above) by moving up to twice their Operations Range in Sea Zones or Hexes.

Merchant Raiding (WMR)

A Fleet can be directed to raid merchant shipping (MSP) in a given Sea Zone or Hex within their Operations Range. This is equivalent to the Leader based Piracy action.

Commerce Protection (WMR)

A Fleet can be directed to protect merchant shipping (MSP) in a given Sea Zone or Hex within their Operations Range.

Blockade (WBP)

A Fleet is assigned to blockade either a Port City or a region of coastline within the smaller of its Navigation Rating or Operations Range. This is equivalent to the Leader-based Blockade Port action.

Explore (WEX)

This action allows a Naval Ops Leader to perform the Explore action so that a valuable national leader does not have to risk the perils of the unknown.

Exploration commences at a Fleet Base, but may end the turn at an unexplored coastline or uncontrolled port. Inevitably, this may result in attrition and onwards movement is limited by the Warship Operations Range of the Fleet. Until it returns to a Fleet Base the Fleet can only continue to Explore in subsequent turns, unless a National Leader assumes control.

Patrol (WPL)

Regular Leader AP cost is at least 5 AP.

Surface units on patrol are assigned to assert ‘control of the sea’ to defend a specific Sea Zone or Hex within their Operational Range against hostile attack or presence. Any fleets within the Sea Zone or Hex (including armies on islands) are protected by this action. While sailable (undestroyed, undamaged) units remain attached to the mission, they can defend against multiple attacks.

Gunboat Diplomacy (WGD)

A Fleet can be directed to ‘show the flag’ parading their naval force to intimidate, coerce or demonstrate good will at a region or port city within their Operations Range. This action attempts to aid a Leader performing a diplomacy action. Note that the Admiralty Leader himself cannot perform Diplomacy.

Naval Bombardment (WTB)

Regular Leader AP cost is 5 AP plus the AP to reach the objective.

Warships with a Siege rating of one (1) or more may be directed to attack existing facilities (Dockyards, Airship Yards, Submarine Yards, Industry, Shipyards) or projects (Railroad lines, Bridges, Pyramids, etc.) in a coastal Region or port city within their Operational Range. Damage is done in terms of GP/NFP/Time required to repair the damage, if the facility is not destroyed outright.

This mission can also be performed in support of amphibious assaults.

Naval Transport (WNT)

Fleets including transports can deliver other units to or from a controlled city or fortress within their Operational Range. The Fleet must include sufficient cargo capacity on transport ships to carry the other units.

Fleets can only deliver units to controlled port cities and fortresses.

Note that this is not an assault action and the order includes the time for troops to embark and disembark. The units being transported cannot fight as they are crammed into cargo holds.

This Naval Operations Combat Leader Action will deliver the units Operations Range + Navigation AP after their arrival at the port of embarkation.

Naval - Sub Operations

Submersible (sub) and Submarine (ss) units can attempt Actions either by being commanded by a Leader, or through the use of a Naval Operations Combat Leader.

Subs under the control of a Leader act as regular Fleet units, though they can still execute a Torpedo Attack during Fleet vs. Fleet combat.

Sub Missions (actions) implemented through the use of a Naval Operations point are performed using the Combat rating of the Combat Leader.

Sub units tasked to an Action via a Naval Operations point can only conduct one (1) mission per turn. Ships being commanded by a Leader, however, can conduct as many missions in a turn as the Leader has AP to pay for.

A Nation’s sub units at a specific Base are called an ‘Wolf Pack’.

Sub Bases

Submarines have to operate from a base and can only engage in Actions (missions) within Operations Range AP of that base.

Subs can be based at an unbesieged, unblockaded Port City or Port Fortress controlled at Tributary or better, which is able to trace a Line of Communication back to the national capital. Subs at an isolated Port City or Port Fortress cannot undertake any Sub Operations (with or without a Leader).

The operational Range of a given wolfpack comprised of Submarine units is determined by the following formula.

Sub Operational Range = (TL – 12) × 3

Table 5-10. Submarine Operations Range

Tech Operations Range
13 3
14 6
15 9
16 12

Each Operations Range point equals one Sea Zone or Hex.

Sub Missions

The following missions can be attempted by Submarine units being deployed by a Naval Operations Combat Leader.

Rebasing (SRB)

Rebasing subs can relocate to another Base (which must meet the Base criteria listed above) by moving up to twice their Operations Range in Sea Zones or Hexes.

Merchant Raiding (SMR)

A Wolf Pack can be directed to raid merchant shipping (MSP) in a given Sea Zone or Hex within their Operations Range.

Torpedo Attack (STA)

Submersible/Submarine (sub) units can be employed in combat either as discrete units attached to a fleet of warships (and led by a Leader), or through a Torpedo Attack (deployed by a Naval Ops Combat Leader).

A Torpedo Attack is directed at a Sea Zone or Hex within the Operations Range of the Wolf Pack. Any hostile Fleets (including enemy submarines) entering the Sea Zone or Hex will be attacked, if found.

In combat against opposing Fleets of warships, subs have a preliminary combat round during which they may destroy or damage enemy ships. Submarines can be particularly deadly in that, regardless of the Armor value and Combat Strength of their target, a single torpedo attack could damage or even destroy the target.

Submarine attacks can be screened, however, by ‘light’ ship units: torpedo boat destroyers, torpedo boats, modern corvettes, destroyers and frigates.

Aircraft Operations

An Aircraft Operations Combat Leader allows a group of aircraft units at a given Air Base to perform an Air Mission during the turn, without the intervention or assistance of a standard Leader.

A Leader, however, may take direct control of the aircraft units (attaching them to his army) and conduct Air missions as well.

A Nation’s aircraft units at a specific Base are called an ‘Air Wing’. An Air Wing may undertake multiple missions during a turn, as resources (Combat Leader or Leaders) allow.

An Air Wing composed of airships and aeroplanes, or differing types of aeroplane (biplane/monowing/jet) employs the lowest Operations Range of any asset within the Air Wing.

Aircraft tasked to an Action via an Air Operations Combat Leader can only conduct one (1) mission per turn. Aircraft being commanded by a Leader, however, can conduct as many missions in a turn as the Leader has AP to pay for.

In the following description Aircraft means either Airships or Aeroplanes.

Air Bases

Aircraft have to operate from a base and can engage in combat operations (in support of Leader actions or in Strategic attacks) within their Operations Range of the base.

Aircraft can be based at a City or Fortress controlled at Tributary or better, which is able to trace a Line of Communication back to the national capital.

Aircraft Carriers act as mobile Air Bases which do not have to trace a supply line back to a HBZ city. They do, however, have to end the turn in a controlled Port City. Aircraft at an isolated City or Fortress cannot undertake any Air Operations (with or without a Leader).

Aircraft at a base but not under the command of a Combat Leader or a Leader automatically defend the base itself (the city or fortress or aircraft carrier) if it is attacked. They do not, however, defend the region where the City or Fortress is located unless acting under the control of a Combat Air Patrol air operation.

Aircraft under the command of a Leader or being employed through a Combat Leader point may conduct offensive operations (in support of an Attack or Siege or React), in either the region where they are based, or in regions up to their Operations Range away.

Table 5-11. Operational Ranges for Airships

Airship Type Operations Range
Scout Airship 3
Airship 4
Heavy Airship 6
Airship Transport 8

Table 5-12. Operational Ranges for Aircraft

Aircraft Type Biplane Monowing Jet
Carrier Fighter 0 1 3
Fighter / Carrier Bomber 1 2 5
Bomber / Cargo Plane 1 4 8
Heavy Bomber - 6 12

Sea Zones and Hexes count as 2 Range Points per zone or hex. This means that Carrier Biplane Fighters can only defend own fleet and Carrier Monowing Fighters can only conduct operations in their current Sea Hex or Zone.

An exception to this is Sea Hex/Zone combinations which in area make up approximately one Hex. Examples of this are: Hex 23C and Freya Bank, Hex 41H and Inland Sea and so on. In this case the Zone is 1 Range and the Hex is 1 Range.

An Air Range point works on a Region/Sea Hex/Zone basis - so if an airship or aircraft enters a Region/Sea Hex/Zone then it can attack anything (or any location) within it.

Aircraft Combat Doctrine

In battle, you may direct your aircraft units to specifically engage opposing aircraft, in which case a separate combat will be fought (before any ground, naval or siege engagements) to determine air superiority. If you do not so direct your air units, they will fight in conjunction with your ground and/or naval forces.

Fighter and Carrier Fighter-type Aircraft can only engage in combat with other Aircraft and Airships.

Bombers and Carrier Bombers can engage in land combat, sieges, and naval actions.

Heavy Bombers can engage in siege, land combat and aerial bombardment, but are not particularly useful in naval actions.

Aircraft engaged in combat with Airships gain a substantial bonus to their combat rolls.

Air Missions

Air Missions (actions) implemented through the use of an Air Operations point are performed using the Combat rating of the Wing Commander.

Aircraft Rebasing (AIB)

Regular Leader AP cost is 2 AP.

Aircraft units can rebase – move from one controlled City or Fortress to another controlled City or Fortress – with a range of twice their Operational Range.

Strategic Bombardment (STB)

Regular Leader AP cost is 5 AP.

Aircraft with a Siege rating of one (1) or more may be directed to attack existing facilities (Dockyards, Airship Yards, Submarine Yards, Industry, Shipyards) or projects (Railroad lines, Bridges, Pyramids, etc.) in a Region within their Operational Range. Damage is done in terms of GP/NFP/Time required to repair the damage, if the facility is not destroyed outright.

Specific locations may be defended against aerial bombardment by AA artillery or opposing aircraft and airships on Combat Air Patrol.

Combat Air Patrol (CAP)

Regular Leader AP cost is at least 5 AP.

Air units on CAP are assigned to defend a specific Region, Sea Zone or Hex within their Operational Range against hostile air attacks. Any locations, armies or fleets within the Region, Sea Zone or Hex are protected by this action. While flyable (undestroyed, undamaged) aircraft remain attached to the mission, they can defend against multiple attacks.

Enemy air missions passing through the protected area may provoke combat with the CAP mission.

Anti-Piracy Patrol

Airships or aeroplanes can be tasked to patrol a Sea Zone or Hex to protect merchant shipping against Piracy or Merchant Raiding. This Operation will reduce the effects of any Piracy/Merchant Raiding within the designated Sea Zone or Hex. If performed by Heavy Airships or Bombers it may result in the destruction of some or all of the hostile units.

Ground Support (GS)

Regular Leader AP cost is at least 2 AP.

Air units on ground support are attached to a friendly Army and attack in concert with that army for the duration of the turn (even as the Army moves), while the Army is within the operational Range of the aircraft Base.

Note! Air units supporting an Army fighting on the ground can only add Siege strength points up to one-half of the base army strength.

Fleet Air Attack (FAA)

Regular Leader AP cost is at least 3 AP.

Air units tasked to an FAA mission are directed against a given Sea Zone or Hex where enemy fleets or merchant shipping are located. Any hostile Fleets which enter the Sea Zone or Hex may be attacked (if found by the aircraft), while undamaged, undestroyed aircraft units remain on the mission.

Interdiction (INT)

Regular Leader AP cost is all possible AP.

Air units tasked to an INT mission are directed against a given Region. Enemy armies entering the region then must pay additional AP to conduct actions in the region, based on the success of the Interdiction effort, the number of aircraft on the mission, etc.

Air Assault (AAA)

Regular Leader AP cost is 6 AP.

An Air Wing including aircraft with a cargo rating may be directed to drop Parachute Infantry (pi) in a Region within their Operational Range. The Air Wing must have the cargo capacity to deliver the paratrooper units. The transport planes can be accompanied by fighters to defend them.

Once on the ground the Parachute Infantry have an initial bonus against other ground units in combat in the region and can be supported by another Air Op performing Ground Support. However, unless the Parachute Infantry join up with an Army led by an Army Combat Leader or ordinary Leader they are removed at the end of the turn (no supply line).

If the Air Assault is led by a normal Leader, then the player can specify if the Leader returns with the aircraft or leads the paratroopers in combat. If the latter the aircraft on the mission automatically return to base - and if engaged in combat returning home will be led by a Temporary Leader - and the paratroopers will be played as any other army led by a Leader.

If a Combat Leader or standard Leader does not jump with the Paratroopers then they fight as though led on the ground by that Leader - due to mission planning.

Specific locations may be defended against parachutists by AA artillery or opposing aircraft and airships on Combat Air Patrol, by regional garrisons, and armies on React or Defend.

Air Transport (AAT)

Regular Leader AP cost is 4 AP.

Air Wings including transports can deliver other units to or from a controlled city or fortress within their Operational Range. The Air Wing must include sufficient cargo capacity to transport the other units.

Air Wings consisting of aircraft can only deliver to a controlled city or fortress. Air Wings consisting only of airships can deliver to a controlled region for an additional one (1) AP.

Note that this is not an assault action and the order includes the time for troops to embark and disembark.

This Air Operations Combat Leader Action will deliver the units Operations Range AP after their arrival at the location of embarkation.

Rocketry Operations

Rocket Operations can be performed by an Aircraft Operations Combat Leader or an Army Operations Combat Leader without the intervention or assistance of a standard Leader.

A Leader, however, may take direct control of the rocket units (attaching them to his army) and conduct Rocket missions as well.

Rocket Bases

Rockets have to operate from a base and can engage in bombardment operations (in support of Leader actions or in Strategic attacks) within their Operations Range of the base. This can be an Army Base or Aircraft Base. Rockets can be based at a City or Fortress controlled at Tributary or better, which is able to trace a Line of Communication back to the national capital.

A single-stage rocket requires no special launch facilities; larger two-stage rockets require a Spaceport. (Silo-based and submarine-carried intercontinental missiles will appear at later Tech Levels.)

Rockets under the command of a Leader or being employed through a Combat Leader point may conduct offensive operations in regions up to their Operations Range away. When launched the rocket units are automatically destroyed regardless of whether they hit their intended target or not.

Rocket Ranges

Table 5-13. Operational Ranges for Rockets

Rocket Type Minimum Range Maximum Range Nuclear Capable Spaceport
Single-Stage Rocket 1 3 No No
Dual-Stage Rocket 2 3 Large Hexes Yes Yes
Rocketry: Manned Capsule -- -- No Yes
Rocketplane 1 8 Large Hexes No No

Sea Zones and Hexes count as 2 Range Points per zone or hex. An exception to this is Sea Hex/Zone combinations which in area make up approximately one Hex. Examples of this are: Hex 23C and Freya Bank, Hex 41H and Inland Sea and so on. In this case the Zone is 1 Range and the Hex is 1 Range.

Large Hex Map for Rockets

The Large Hex Map provides an easy way to determine and define the trajectory of any inter-continental rocket. To calculate the range of the rocket identify the launch site in one hex and the target in another. The launch hex and the target hex both count against the range of the rocket.

In addition to flying on the map, long range rockets can also fly over the Polar Regions. This means that any rocket trajectory can leave the top or bottom edge of the Map and reappear anywhere along that edge of the Map.

This map is also used in determining the course flown by rocketplanes.

Rocket Missions

Rocket Missions (actions) implemented through the use of an Army or Air Operations point are performed using the Combat rating of the Commander.

Bombardment (RBM)

Regular Leader AP cost is 3 AP.

Rockets with a Siege rating of one (1) or more may be directed to attack a single target per order against a city, fortress or project location (Railroad lines, Bridges, Pyramids, etc.) in a Region within their Operational Range. Damage is done in terms of GP/NFP/Time required to repair the damage, if the facility is not destroyed outright.

Each Mission can direct multiple rockets at the Rocket base to a single target. An additional Mission is needed to launch one or more rockets against another target (preparing for launch, calibrating the guidance instruments, and aligning the launch pad).

When performing this Mission the rocket trajectory must be specified.

There is no defense (at Industrial Levels One) against Rocket Bombardment.

Launch Manned Spacecraft (LMS)

Regular Leader AP cost is 5AP.

A manned spacecraft blasts off from the Rocket Base and (hopefully) achieves orbit, and is safely returned to Earth. The AP duration of the Mission covers the sequence from launch, orbit and return.

As with any other Rocket Mission, the Rocketry QR governs the likely outcome.

A failure results in a big explosion on the pad, the breakup of the rocket in flight, failure to return the capsule to Earth, the capsule burning up on re-entry or failing to deploy parachutes or landing rockets… There is much that can go wrong with such a highly complex technological endeavor. Unless you wish to celebrate glorious (but deceased) heroes and heroines of your nation, you may wish to send irritating primitive beeping satellites and unfortunate dogs and chimps into space instead of a human.

Later Projects will allow for docking at orbital space labs and space stations or flying to the Moon…

This action can also be used to fly a rocketplane, but can only be performed by Aircraft Operations Combat Leader or a standard Leader and must be performed at an Air Base.

Nuclear Operations

Nuclear Operations can be performed by an Aircraft Operations Combat Leader, a Naval Operations Combat Leader or Army Operations Combat Leader without the intervention or assistance of a standard Leader.

A Leader, however, may take direct control of the Nuclear units (attaching them to his army) and conduct Nuclear missions as well.

Nuclear Missions

Nuclear Missions (actions) implemented through the use of an Army, Navy or Air Operations point are performed using the Combat rating of the Commander.

When a nuclear weapon is deployed by another unit, the nuclear weapon damage is applied, not the damage of the unit carrying it to its target.

Deploy Nuclear Bomb (DNB)

Regular Leader AP cost is 1AP.

The deployment of a nuclear bomb counts as an addition to an existing mission, not as a distinct mission, unless performed by a Regular Leader. The AP cost represents the preparations for deploying the bomb.

An Atomic Bomb can only be deployed by heavy bomber or ship so the Action must be combined with another Action. If deployed using aircraft then this counts as a Strategic Bombing or Air Support; if deployed by ship or submarine this counts as being left at an enemy Port City or Port Fortress as a Nuclear Depth Bomb.

Delivering the bomb by some other means, such as by cargo ship or railroad requires a regular Leader to move it and probably intel CFs to conceal the dastardly plan.

Deploy Nuclear Warhead (DNW)

Regular Leader AP cost is 1AP.

The deployment of a nuclear warhead counts as an addition to an existing mission, not as a distinct mission, unless performed by a Regular Leader. The AP cost represents the preparations for deploying the warhead.

An Atomic Bomb as a warhead must be deployed by dual-stage rocket and so the Action must be combined with a Bombardment Action.

Effects of Nuclear Weapons

The damage caused by a nuclear weapon is divided equally into the components: population loss, pwb loss, wallpoints, damage to factories and yards and units present at the location.

If a component is totally destroyed then the remaining damage is divided among the remaining components, and again, until no damage points remain. Any railroads using the city or fortress as an anchor point are automatically broken and will require a Level One construction project to repair the tracks. Roads are not affected.

The damage caused is reduced by 25 points per weapon if air raid shelters are available at the location. Wallpoints provide no protection against nuclear attack.

If a nuclear bomb is used in a ground support weapon, the GM must determine the percentages of losses attributed to enemy and friendly forces, including field forts. Nuclear warheads cannot be used in battle until more advanced tactical weapons are developed. The effects of a nuclear bomb in naval warfare are more limited though all sailing and steam ships in the vicinity will be automatically destroyed. Damage against Pre-modern ships is reduced by 25 points per bomb, and by 50 points against modern ships. Due to the effects of EMP the advantages conferred by radio, radar and other electronic systems in the location, army or fleet will be halved for the remainder of the turn.

In addition to their direct damage against a city, fortress or armies, nuclear weapons have other dire effects. The detonation of multiple bombs in a relatively short period brings the threat of a Nuclear Winter of varying degree, affecting the continental and possibly global agro production as dust and smoke is thrown up into the atmosphere. It may then be followed by a deadly Nuclear Summer, heralding more damage to plant life and a worsening climate as desertification spreads. In the worst case full ecological collapse is triggered as the food chain dies from the bottom up.

Within the target nation and potentially surrounding nations as wind patterns distribute the fallout, nfp may be depressed for many years due to the effects of radiation and mortality rates from radiation poisoning and birth defects. The early atomic and nuclear bombs and warheads are not 'clean'. A major nuclear exchange brings the collapse of national infrastructure, and a likely fall in Tech Level even if the war damage does not herald an endgame scenario.

At Industrial One aircraft and ships carrying nuclear weapons can be engaged by conventional forces. There is no defense against a warhead delivered by rocket.

At Industrial Two Anti-Ballistic Missile systems can be developed.

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Lords of the Earth, 6th Edition © 2010 Thomas Harlan
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